Nasal congestion: treatment of adults and children. How and what to treat nasal congestion - drops
Nasal congestion is a feeling of lack of air, withWhich can not be fully sighed by one / both nostrils. Insufficient nasal breathing is accompanied by nasal, pain and itching in the nasal sinuses, stuffy ears, decreased sense of smell, sneezing, unpleasant odor and discharge from the nose. Because of the constant oxygen starvation of the body, the chronic obstruction of nasal breathing serves as an impetus to the development of serious complications - otitis, sinusitis, vascular pathologies and cardiac muscle, tonsillitis, lower diseases (lungs, bronchi) and upper (trachea, larynx) respiratory tract. Determine the exact cause of nasal congestion and appoint appropriate treatment can only the doctor-otolaryngologist after a thorough diagnosis and analysis of the anamnesis. Self-medication, usually consisting of uncontrolled administration of vasoconstrictor drops, is fraught with the progression of mucosal hyperplasia, which is treated exclusively surgically.
Nasal congestion - causes:
- Chronic diseases of the paranasal sinuses / nose: polyps, maxillary sinus cyst, sinusitis, allergic rhinitis, vasomotor rhinitis, chronic rhinitis;
- Acute infectious diseases: acute sinusitis, acute infectious rhinitis;
- Rhinitis of pregnant women. Develops in the second trimester on the background of hormonal surges, manifested by mucous secretions, congestion, swelling;
- Anatomical disorders: fracture of nose, curvature / perforation of nasal septum, deformation of external nose;
- Abscess (furuncle) in the anterior nasal segment;
- Neoplasm of benign or malignant origin;
- Pathology of the nasopharynx: adenoids, tumors;
- Foreign bodies in the paranasal sinuses / nose.
Nasal congestion - diagnostic measures
The generality of the symptomatology causes certain difficulties in the detection of diseases of the nasal cavity and implies a differential diagnosis, including:
- Collection of anamnesis and examination of the patient's complaints (how long has bilateral / unilateral zalozhennost, how it manifests itself, how the patient was treated, whether the effect was);
- Visual inspection (presence / absence of trauma signs);
- Rhinoscopy. It can detect mucosal edema, anatomical defects, tumors, discharge in the nasal passages;
- Endoscopy. It gives an opportunity to find an inflammatory process in the paranasal sinuses, neoplasms that are invisible in the rhinoscopy;
- Computer tomography, radiography / ultrasound of the paranasal sinuses.
Nasal congestion - treatment
The method of treatment depends on the cause,Provoking the difficulty of nasal breathing. Modern medicine has many effective methods that allow quickly cure zalozhennost and restore normal breathing, the main thing - to select an individual treatment regimen, taking into account all the nuances and features of the clinical picture of the disease.
- Disturbances in the structure of the nasal cavity. Curvature, change in the shape of the septum, hypertrophy of nasal concha - indications for surgical treatment. The operation refers to plastic surgery, is performed endonasally, which excludes cuts on the face. Duration of manipulation is 30 to 50 minutes, may be performed under general or local anesthesia.
- Allergic rhinitis. Develops as a result of the introduction of allergens into the nasal mucosa, characterized by congestion, itching, paroxysmal sneezing. It is recommended to completely eliminate (if possible) close contact with the allergen - this will help alleviate the symptoms and avoid inflammation, which increases sensitivity to irritation.
Treatment of congestion in allergic rhinitis:
- Antihistamines. Systemic (Cetirizine, Astemizol, Fexofenadine) quickly relieve nasal congestion, eliminate itching and sneezing. If the manifestations of the disease are limited to the nose, local antagonists of H1-histamine receptors (Levocabastine, Azelastine) are effective. Contraindications: lactation period, pregnancy;
- Local corticosteroids (Fluticasone, mometasone,Triamcinolone acetonide). The relief of the condition is observed after 1-2 days of admission, for a lasting improvement it takes 7-10 days. The introduction of nasal corticosteroids should begin with a maximum dose, gradually reducing it as it recovers. With a very severe nasal congestion in the first week of treatment, administration of betamethasone drops is recommended;
- Anticholinergics (Ipatropium bromide). They have powerful anticholinergic activity and poorly expressed systemic effect, are shown to patients with wateryhistorrhea (mucous secretion from the nose), are contraindicated in patients with prostatic hypertrophy and glaucoma;
- immunotherapy. The essence of the treatment consists in hypodermic injections of increasing doses of the detected allergen before the formation of immunological tolerance. The standard scheme: weekly injections - monthly injections, lasting 2-3 years. Immunotherapy is performed in medical institutions equipped with resuscitation equipment because of the risk of anaphylaxis and dangerous systemic reactions;
- surgery. Indication: complex pathology of the paranasal sinuses, irreversible hypertrophy of the nasal concha, hyperplasia of the pharyngeal tonsil, significantly impairing nasal breathing.
- Vasomotor (nonallergic) rhinitis. At the heart of the disease is a disruption of the autonomic nervous system due to a respiratory viral infection, alcohol intake, inhalation of tobacco smoke, sudden fluctuations in the temperature of the inhaled air or the influence of medications (anti-inflammatory drugs, antidepressants, sedatives). Typical symptoms of non-allergic rhinitis are alternate obstruction of the left and right halves of the nasal cavity, absence of itching.
Treatment of congestion with vasomotor rhinitis:
- Washing of the nasal passages with saline solutions possessing anti-inflammatory and disinfecting properties;
- Sprays with corticosteroid hormones (Fliksonase,Nazarel, Baconaz) long courses (a month or more). They are characterized by high systemic bioavailability and a reliable safety profile. The effect accumulates gradually, so it is very important during the treatment to be systematically applied;
- Sprays based on ipratropium bromide (Ipravent, Atrovent). Are shown at a cold rhinitis, reduce quantity of nasal excretions, eliminate zalozhennost, improve the general condition;
- Medicines providingVasoconstrictive action (Ephedrine, Naphthysine, Sanorin). Reduce the swelling of the mucosa, exudation, flushing, narrowing the peripheral vessels, leveling the stuffiness;
- Intracavitary blockade with novocaine / hydrocortisone;
- Acupuncture, physiotherapy, moderate exercise, contrast shower.
If conservative methods are not effectiveTreatment of nasal congestion perform low-traumatic surgery - submucosal lower osteochondhotomy, laser photodestruction or ultrasonic disintegration. The purpose of the operation is to destroy the submucous vessels of the nasal concha, so that they do not increase due to edema. The approach to surgical treatment depends on the features of the clinic of vasomotor rhinitis, etiology, associated pathologies.
Effective drops in the nose with congestion
Nasal congestion in adults is treated with nasal drops / sprays of various groups (symptomatic therapy).
- Vasculature. Quickly relieve congestion, restore normal nasal breathing, while eliminating the headache and runny nose. Long-term treatment with vasoconstrictive drugs is not permissible because of the high risk of drug-induced rhinitis, which is difficult to treat. The main disadvantages of vasoconstricting drops are a short-term effect, a toxic effect on the cellular material of the ciliary epithelium:
- Preparations of short action (up to 6 hours): Sanorin, Tizin, Naphthysine;
- Average action (up to 10 hours): Galazolin, Orinin, Rhinostop;
- Long-term action (up to 12 hours): Nazol, Nazivin.
- Preparations of short action (up to 6 hours): Sanorin, Tizin, Naphthysine;
- Anti-inflammatory (Isofra, Polidexa withPhenylephrine). Effective remedy for a cold and nasal congestion. Kill pathogenic viruses and bacteria, eliminate swelling of the mucous membrane, relieve inflammation, promote recovery.
- Antiallergic (Vibrocil, Sanorin analgesin). Well help from the stuffiness and dryness of the nasal cavity.
- With essential oils (Pinosol, Evkasept). Neutralize bacteria / viruses, do not become addictive, gently regenerate the mucous membrane, eliminate stasis.
- With corticosteroid hormones (Nazonex,Fliksonase). Have a pronounced anti-allergic / anti-edematous effect, shown with nasal congestion, provoked by chronic allergic rhinitis, sinusitis.
- Saline solutions (Salin, Aqua Maris). They contain trace elements and salts that stimulate the recovery processes that have an anti-inflammatory effect.
Nasal congestion without vasoconstrictive nasal drops
Treatment of nasal congestion consists of two stages- sanation and recovery of the nasal mucosa. It is advisable to begin therapy with distracting procedures. Tea with raspberries, hot baths, mustard plasters are excellent agents that improve the blood supply to the nose. Inhalation and warming with zalozhennosti need to practice with caution. If there are diseases of the respiratory system, you can aggravate the condition. A worthy alternative to vasoconstrictive drops is homeopathic remedies (Cinnabsin, Sinupret in the form of drops / dragees). These drugs are characterized by moderate anti-inflammatory and anti-edematous properties, have no contraindications, the only negative - they must be selected strictly individually, otherwise it will not be possible to predict the effectiveness of treatment.
Nasal congestion with breathing exercises
Breathing exercises contribute to the activation of pulmonary respiration, enhance the overall blood flow, purify the nasal passages and bronchi, and remove the stuffy nose.
A complex of breathing exercises that helps with any form of rhinitis:
- Make a full sigh through the nose, first protruding the stomach, then - expanding the thorax. With a "nasal" expiration, first of all, it is necessary to reduce the volume of the breast, in the second - to draw in the stomach;
- Perform chest breathing: a long breath through the nose (the chest expands, the stomach retracts). During exhalation - on the contrary;
- Perform abdominal breathing: a prolonged "nasal" inspiration, while the stomach should protrude.
The complex aimed at stimulation of nasal breathing and elimination of congestion:
- Spread his legs apart, inhale through his nose,Raising his hands up. Slowly lower them, exhaling through the nose. It is important in the first part of the exercise to strongly bend in the lumbar and thoracic spine;
- Make an exhalation, clutching the nose and pulling the shoulder blades - inhaling, dropping down on the foot, hands bent forward - exhalation;
- Air massage of the nasal mucosa: put your legs to the sides, close your mouth tightly. In turn, inhale the left / right nostril as slowly as possible, pressing the opposite nostril with your fingers.
Hardware treatment of nasal congestion
Provides complete sanitation and regeneration of the wholeArea mucous regardless of the cause of nasal congestion. To date, there are several safe and effective techniques for normalizing nasal breathing:
- Washing according to Proetz. The introduction of a drug substance into one nostril and pumping it out of the other with the help of electric suction. During the procedure, the nasal cavity is cleared of bacteria and viruses, the mucous membranes are washed with medicinal preparations, which quickly relieves congestion;
- electrophoresis. The procedure aimed at delivering the drug to the tissues through the action of direct current - drug ions are evenly distributed in the mucous membranes / skin, rapidly penetrating into all tissues and organs with blood flow, eliminating obstruction, restoring healthy breathing
- reflexology. Non-pharmacological effect on biologically active points and reflexogenic zones located on the skin surface, which has a strong healing effect.
Folk remedies for nasal congestion
Ideally, the treatment of nasal congestion shouldbegin with a visit to the otolaryngologist, who will determine the cause of the illness and help pick up the necessary medications. If there is no desire or time to visit the doctor, you can use the folk recipes:
Drops from nasal congestion:
- take fresh beet juice, aloe juice, filtered pure water, mix the ingredients in equal proportions. The received liquid to dig in in both nostrils 3-4 times a day;
- to press through a press a garlic slice, add one tablespoon of vegetable oil, mix thoroughly, set aside for 10-12 hours. Strain, apply as nasal drops;
- peel the middle carrots, grate, squeeze the juice, add an identical amount of vegetable oil (unrefined). It is good to stir the mixture, to drip into the nose one drop three times a day.
Treatment of obstruction by clay applications
Warming up helps restorereflex reactions of the nasal sinuses and nose, facilitate the general condition, eliminate nasal congestion. Each application requires 0.5 cups of natural red clay: soak clay in 250 milliliters of water, mix, heat to 60 degrees in a water bath, evenly distribute on a napkin in the form of a "butterfly", attach to the nose in a warm form, keep until completely cool .
Treatment of stuffiness with mint tea
To brew daily a tablespoon of mint 120-150milliliters of water, eat 3 times a day instead of tea. In addition, irrigate with mint infusion of the nasal mucosa once a day - procedures reduce the sensitivity of the mucosa to external stimuli.
Inhalation of potatoes against obstruction
Boil the potatoes without draining the water. Carry out inhalations for 15-20 minutes every other day. Important: during the process, you can not cover your head to avoid swelling. The standard course of treatment is 10-12 days, if necessary, repeat.
Treatment of obstruction with chamomile baths
Take a tablespoon of dried camomile flowers, pour250 milliliters of boiling water, to insist 20-25 minutes. During the procedure, draw the nose liquid for 7-10 seconds. Cook the bathtubs twice a week, to perform each manipulation no more than 5 minutes.
Prevention of nasal congestion
- limiting contacts with patients with respiratory-viral infections;
- timely treatment of diseases of the ear, throat, nose;
- Exclusion of radical interventions in the nasal cavity, injury to the face / nose;
- maintenance of optimum humidity of air in a residential area;
- Correction of anomalies in the structure of the nose;
- refusal from bad habits, regular walks in the fresh air;
- adherence to the principles of rational nutrition.
Nasal congestion is a disease, substantiallydeteriorating the physical condition and reducing the quality of life like coronary heart disease or back pain. Do not start the disease, constantly remove symptoms with vasoconstrictor drops, at the risk of earning serious complications. Physicians strongly recommend that when the first signs of anxiety appear, consult a specialist, be examined and take a course of treatment.