Gardnerelosis in women: causes, symptoms, diagnosis. Gardnerella in women and men - treatment methods
Gardnerella in women - an infectious syndrome,Associated with the dysbacteriosis of the vaginal ecosystem, accompanied by a high concentration of gardnerella and the absence / significant decrease in the population of lactic acid bacteria. Chronic gardnerellez leads to inflammatory diseases of the pelvic organs, vagina, endometritis, is considered a prerequisite for the development of adnexitis (inflammatory process in the fallopian tubes and ovaries), serious complications during childbirth and pregnancy.
Gardnerella in women: the causes of
Gardnerella vaginalis (optional classAnaerobes) in small quantities is constantly present in the microflora of the vagina, without causing discomfort and symptoms of gardnerellez. The carriers of Gardnerella vaginalis are 25-45% of healthy women of different age groups. Active reproduction of gardnerella under the influence of endogenous / exogenous factors leads to the displacement of lactobacilli and replacement of the normal flora of Gardnerella vaginalis. As a result, the disbiotic disorders of the mucosa progress, its protective properties and processes in the cells of the vaginal epithelium change. Gardnerella produce many amino acids and pyruvic acid, which are necessary for pathogenic organisms for nutrition and metabolism. During decarboxylation of amino acids in the vaginal secretions, amines with an unpleasant odor of rotten fish are released.
Etiology of gardnerellez:
- Frequent douching (washing out of lactobacilli);
- Application of chlorine-containing antiseptics (Miramistin, Gibitan);
- Use of contraceptives containing 9-nonoxinol (candles Patentex, Nonoxinol);
- Promiscuity in sexual relations;
- Unreasonable intake of antibiotics;
- Diseases of the urogenital system;
- Long-term radiation exposure;
- Intestinal dysbiosis;
- Hormonal failures. The function of the ovaries determines the activity of reproduction of the lactoflora. The hormonal component in the etiology of gardnerellosis explains the fact that the disease is rarely diagnosed in adolescence (14-18 years) and during menopause;
- Decreased susceptibility of the immune system to infectious agents;
- Reception of antidepressants, hormonal preparations.
Gardnerella in women: symptoms
The main feature of pathology is the absenceExternal manifestations of inflammation of the vaginal walls, in 50% of patients gardnerellez proceeds with lubricated symptoms. A colposcopic examination reveals dystrophic deformations in combination with abnormal processes in the cervix. Sometimes there is an asymptomatic course of the disease - a complete lack of clinical signs on the background of positive laboratory tests. Explicit symptoms of gardnerelleza: abundant grayish-yellow discharge of creamy consistency, the smell of rotten fish, pain / itching in coitus.
Gardnerelosis in women: treatment and diagnosis
The diagnosis of "gardnerellez" is based onAnamnesis, clinical and screening data - pH-metry (sensitivity 80-99%) and aminotest. When testing for gardnerellosis, additional testing is highly desirable to exclude sexually transmitted infections - genital herpes, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis.
The therapeutic scheme consists of two stages:
- Elimination of infection and associatedInflammation. Gardnerelles are resistant to kaminoglikozidam, sulfonamides, tetracyclines, cephalosporins; Sensitive to ciclindamycin and ampicillin. The drugs of choice are Clindamycin and Metronidazole. To speed up the recovery process, immunotherapy is performed. It is recommended to abstain from sexual intercourse without the use of condoms for the time of taking medications.
- Restoration of normal microbiocenosisof the vagina. Prescribe eubiotics (Bifidumbacterin, Acilactum, Lactobacterin), which stimulate the growth of natural lactoflora and contribute to reducing the number of relapses of the disease.
Gardnerella in pregnancy
The disease is diagnosed in 15-25% of futuremothers. The development of intrauterine infection in pregnancy is not characteristic - the protective mechanisms of the mother's body protect the fetus from infection, but the gardnerelles suppress cellular immunity, which can lead to various complications: premature birth, postpartum sepsis, chorionamionitis. If the analysis reveals gardnerelli, you must immediately begin therapy with Trichopolum, Ornidazole, Metrogil or Metronidazole and taking probiotics. The optimal scheme is chosen by the attending physician strictly in an individual order.
Gardnerelosis in women: treatment at home
Before the beginning of the course of treatment with the help of folkmeans it is recommended to consult a doctor to avoid complications and side effects. Therapy should be conducted under medical supervision with a laboratory assessment of the patient's current health status. Self-medication can be dangerous!
Decoctions from phytospores:
- take in equal proportions the root of the althea, the grasscudweed, sweet clover, nettle leaves, blueberries, lavender flowers, pine buds. Three large spoons of the collection brew with a liter of boiling water, boil on moderate heat for 10-15 minutes, pour into a thermos, insist 10-12 hours. Eat 120 milliliters for 30-40 minutes before meals during the day;
- to combine in equal proportions the grass of mint,wintergreen, eucalyptus leaves, mother-and-stepmother, bearberry, clover flowers, tansy, root of badana. Pour three tablespoons of the collection with a liter of boiling water, boil 10-15 minutes, insist in a thermos 10-12 hours, take 120 milliliters before meals during the day.
- prepare a solution of apple cider vinegar (teaspoon) and carrot juice (tablespoon), apply on a gauze pad, insert into the vagina for 20-25 minutes;
- prepare a mixture of sea-buckthorn / olive oil and aloe juice (1: 1), apply on a gauze pad, insert into the vagina for 10-12 hours.
Calming sedentary bath:
- flowers of marigold, chamomile, walnut leaves, oak bark.
Medicinal tea to strengthen immunity:
- quince (1 piece), lemon (1 piece), garlic (7-9denticles), fresh cherries (2 cups), apples (2 pieces), water (2.5 liters). Ingredients thoroughly chop, mix, pour boiling water. Drink 100-120 milliliters 4-5 times a day.
Prophylaxis of gardnerelleza in women:
- the presence of one sexual partner, an ordered sex life;
- the exclusion of casual sex;
- observance of intimate hygiene, regular replacement of pads / tampons during menstruation;
- Strengthening of immunity;
- wearing of underwear made of natural materials;
- timely treatment of inflammatory diseases of the pelvic organs.
Gardnerella in men
Infection of a male predominantly occurs intime coitus with a female carrier gardnerell. The contact-household way of transmission of infection (with a handshake, a kiss, in a sauna / bath) is excluded. Predisposing factors of gardnerellosis in men are: accompanying / transferred diseases of the genitourinary system, antibacterial therapy, the use of immunosuppressants, a decrease in immunological activity against the background of physical / emotional stress. In the body gardnerella men coexist for a long time can not - are withdrawn 2-3 days after hitting. In 7-10% of cases, anaerobes linger in urological tissues - there is associated with gardnerella balanoposthitis (nonspecific urethritis).
Gardnerlellosis in men: symptoms
In the overwhelming majority of cases, colonizationgenitals gardnerella does not give a significant symptomatology. Very rarely the disease manifests itself by burning / discomfort when urinating, with thin lean secretions with a characteristic smell of stale fish.
- vesiculitis (inflammation of seminal vesicles);
- urethritis (inflammatory process in urethra).
Diagnosis and treatment regimen for gardnerellosis in men
Diagnostic measures include: study of ejaculate, urine, secretion of the prostate, scraping from the urethra by polymerase chain reaction (specificity 98%). The therapeutic regimen is selected individually, taking into account the presence / absence of concomitant infections and the resistance of the causative agent to medicinal products. Prescribe Levofloxacin, Clindamycin or Doxycycline. During the period of taking the medication, it is recommended to follow a diet that implies the rejection of alcohol, fatty, smoked, spicy dishes. In severe clinical manifestations of the disease, immunostimulants are used to restore the mucosa and increase the body's immune response. According to the indications are prescribed anti-allergic drugs, complexes of microelements and vitamins. To avoid repeated infection with gardnerella, it is important to follow preventive measures: to refrain from having sex with a menstruating woman, to use a condom during sex with an untested partner.
Gardnerella in women - commonpathology of the vaginal ecosystem, which requires qualitative diagnosis and comprehensive treatment. If a violation of the microflora of the vagina is found, it is necessary to undergo appropriate therapy - this will help to avoid complications during pregnancy and childbirth, preserve reproductive health for a long time, and improve the quality of life.