Spiral intrauterine device: instruction, types. The best spiral is intrauterine.
Types of intrauterine spirals:
- Inertial IUDs. Obsolete version, the first generation of spirals. Currently, many countries prohibit the use of inert IUDs, since they use a higher frequency of spontaneous fallout and low reliability in comparison with spirals of recent generations;
- Containing copper IUD. The second generation, the main advantage is satisfactory portability, increased efficiency, ease of introduction / removal;
- Hormone-containing IUDs. The third generation of spirals, which has the advantages of oral contraception and IUD. They represent T-shaped structures, the leg of which is filled with levonorgestrel or progesterone. They have a purposeful local effect on the mucous membrane of the cervix, uterine tubes, endometrium. Pros: decrease in episodes of inflammatory diseases of genitals, reduction of hyperpolymenorrhea. Less: increased intermenstrual bleeding.
Advantages of the intrauterine device:
- High contraceptive reliability;
- The spiral is designed for a long period of use (5-9 years);
- Affordable cost, fast introduction procedure;
- Does not have a negative effect on the body's systems;
- The ability to conceive after the removal of the spiral is restored during one or two menstrual cycles;
- A worthy alternative to OK for women who are contraindicated with oral contraception, and giving birth to women after 35 years;
- Reduces the risk of an ectopic pregnancy;
- The IUD does not feel in the course of coitus, does not interfere with partners.
- Women who have an active sex life are at increased risk of inflammation;
- Probability of expulsion (fallout);
- At wrong installation acyclic spotting, pains are possible;
- The IUD does not protect against HIV infection and sexually transmitted diseases;
- Not suitable for women with painful and prolonged menstruation;
- During the first 2-3 months of use, the IUD enhances menstrual flow;
- Installation / removal is carried out only by a gynecologist.
Metal (silver / gold) and plasticSpirals inhibit the vital activity of spermatozoa, making it impossible to fertilize the egg, change the physiological transformation of the endometrium, which prevents the implantation of a fertilized egg. The IUD encourages contractions of the uterus and fallopian tubes, due to which the fertilized egg gets prematurely into the uterus: the endometrium is not ready to receive the egg, the trophoblast is defective, so implantation becomes impossible. Against the background of hormones containing IUD, the viscosity of the cervical secretion increases, as a result of which the migration of spermatozoa through the fallopian tubes and uterus decreases, ovulation is suppressed.
Instructions for use
Selection, introduction, removal of the IUD is performedGynecologist. The introduction is carried out during a period of abundant menstrual flow, on the 1-2 day of the cycle - this ensures minimal traumatization of the cervical canal. The insertion of the intrauterine spiral into the field of labor and uncomplicated abortion is allowed.
Conditions for installing the helix:
- Examination of the gynecologist;
- Advanced colposcopy;
- Smears on the flora of the cervical canal and vagina;
- Smears on oncocytology;
- Results of ultrasound examination of pelvic organs.
Method of administration:
- With the help of mirrors, uncover the cervix, disinfect, grasp the foreleg with forceps;
- The uterine cavity is measured by the uterine probe;
- Establish a spiral in the uterine cavity;
- Cut the antennae of the IUD, remove forceps, disinfect, prescribe a course of antibiotic therapy.
- Chronic / acute inflammation of the genitals;
- Pathological uterine bleeding of unknown origin;
- Pregnancy (alleged / confirmed);
- Oncology of the genitals, uterine fibromatosis, stenosis of the cervix;
- Ectopia, polyp uterus, cervicitis;
- A scar on the uterus, malformations of the uterus;
- Adolescence, deformation of the uterine cavity.
- Ectopic pregnancy in history;
- Lack of labor in the past;
- Chronic anemia, endometrial pathology;
- Hyperpolymenorrhea, high risk of genital infections.
- Pain in the abdominal cavity after / during the installation of the spiral;
- Bradycardia, iron deficiency anemia;
- Spontaneous spotting in the middle of the cycle;
- Skin allergic reactions, infectious diseases of the urinary tract.
Conditions requiring immediate medical attention:
- Intense cramping pain in the lower abdomen;
- A sharp rise in temperature against the background of pain;
- Menstruation, turning into heavy bleeding;
- Definition of the intrauterine device in the vagina;
- Perforation of the uterine wall of the uterus;
- Pelvioperitonitis, acute salpingo-oophoritis / endometritis.
The best intrauterine device
There are many names and manufacturers of the Navy, the most popular are Juno, Mirena, Multiload, Nova T:
- Mirena. Hormonal IUD, after the installation begins to rapidly release levonorgestrel, which prevents conception. The average rate of hormone release is 14 mg / day for 5 years;
- Juno bio T. Produced by the Russian manufacturer, the most inexpensive and reliable version of the spirals available on the market;
- Multiload. Semi-ovoid IUD with protrusions on the tips, which contributes to the reliable fixation of the structure on the walls of the uterus;
- Nova T. It has a T-shaped configuration, which makes the installation less traumatic and easy.
Self-use of the Navy is unacceptable. Pick up an acceptable type of intrauterine device and correctly install it in the uterine cavity can only gynecologist.