Contraceptive for men. Methods of male contraception, contraceptive pills for men.
Classic methods of contraception for men:
- "Protracted" sexual intercourse. Unreliable option that can not provide protection against unplanned pregnancy. It prolongs the duration of the sexual act, does not lead to ejaculation, but spermatozoa along with the prefamily fluid may well penetrate the uterus;
- Interrupted sexual intercourse. The effectiveness of the method does not exceed 70-72% (every third vaginal contact is considered potentially dangerous), its regular application leads to a decrease in potency and chronic prostatitis. More information about interrupted sexual intercourse can be found here;
- condom. The most popular method of male contraception, has no contraindications, is easy to use, protects against HIV infection and sexually transmitted diseases. (Photo 3) Learn more about how to put on a condom here.
Vasectomy - blockage of the vas deferens withPrevention of sperm patency. Male sterilization is an inexpensive, reliable and simple contraceptive method for men. After consulting a doctor, preparing the necessary documents, you should collect anamnesis, exclude the presence of bleeding, cardiovascular system pathologies, allergies, diabetes, urinary tract infections, STDs. In the course of an objective examination, the arterial pressure, pulse, condition of the subcutaneous fat layer, skin, crotch zone, presence of cryptorchidism, varicocele, inflammatory process of the scrotum are determined.
- The first. Cross the vas deferens without bandaging, electrocoagulate to a depth of 1.5 centimeters, superimpose the fascial layer;
- The second. Fix the vas deferens, cut the muscle layer and skin, isolate the duct, ligate, cross. Each segment is cauterized. For greater reliability, the segment of the vas deferens can sometimes be removed;
- The third. To release the ducts, they resort not to the incision, but to the puncture. Perform local anesthesia, place an annular clamp on the duct, without affecting the layer. Make a cut of the wall and skin of the vas deferens with a dissecting clamp, isolate, conduct an occlusion.
The index of contraceptive reliability of a vasectomyIs 99% during the first 12 months. The percentage of failures is associated with an unidentified congenital anomaly of the vas deferens or with their recanalization. Standard vasectomy is practically irreversible, but today a technique of "reverse vasectomy" has been developed, in which fertility is restored in 90-95% of cases.
Oral contraceptives for men
Birth control pills for men have createdRelatively recently. The main problem of male OC developers was that unlike women who need to protect the egg only on the days of probable conception, semen is formed constantly, therefore contraceptives must neutralize the process every day.
Groups of men's OK
- Inhibitors of spermatogenesis. Tablets of this group contain steroid hormones that suppress the production of gonadotropins, an indirectly testicular function, including spermatogenesis. With a contraceptive, tablets are used in a combined and pure form:
- Testosterone enanthate. At reception the concentration of spermatozoons varies from 5 million / ml and more low. After stopping the intake of sperm and the level of gonadotropic hormones returns to normal. Side effect: weight gain, acne, greasiness of the skin;
- Gestagenic steroids. Progestins inhibit spermatogenesis, for a pronounced effect, large doses are needed. Side effect: decreased libido, the duration of regeneration of spermatogenesis;
- Nafarelin. With prolonged use of nafarelin inhibits the production of follicle-stimulating and luteinizing hormones, and in combination with 200 mg of testosterone inhibits spermatogenesis.
- Drugs affecting the activity of spermatozoa. The most famous drug of this group is Gossipol. It inhibits the enzymes contained in the cells of the spermatogenic epithelium and spermatozoa, which leads to a decrease in the motility of the spermatozoa. Gossypol is taken within 2-3 months of 20 mg daily, followed by a transition to 60 mg in 7 days (the maintenance dose). Side effect: gastric disorders, decreased libido, dry mouth, dizziness.
The best contraceptive effect (90-95%)Is achieved by taking OCs that have a targeted effect on mature spermatozoa. After the end of taking oral hormonal contraceptives, male fertility is restored in full.