What is oncomarkers and what is their role in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer tumors.
In simple words, oncomarkers areProtein molecules that our body produces, reacting to the presence of malignant tumors in different organs. Let's try to understand them and decipher the tests.
When such a blood test is prescribed?
A doctor can prescribe such tests in several cases:
- If there is a suspicion of the onset of cancer
- To determine the malignancy or goodness of the detected tumor
- In order to detect the organ in which the pathological process occurs
- As a means of monitoring the effectiveness of prescribed therapy
- To monitor a person's condition and early diagnosis of cancer recurrence
- The risk group should be given this analysis annually.
Norm and decoding of different oncomarkers
At the moment, scientists have discovered about two hundred different protein molecules, each of which is responsible for the pathological process in a certain organ or type of tissue.
But there are markers that occur most often and are valuable in the diagnosis of cancer.
- PSA shows the presence of malignantFormations in the prostate. In healthy people, its value ranges from zero to four nanograms per milliliter. If the person is sick, the indicator will exceed the figure of 10 ng / ml.
- REA can show oncological processes inVarious organs: lungs, stomach, rectum and large intestine, breast, ovaries and thyroid gland. The norm is not more than 5 ng / ml, but the cancer is diagnosed only if the figure exceeds eight.
- AFP in the normal state is present in pregnant women. But if a woman does not wait for the addition of a family, it can mean that she has a tumor in the liver. The norm is 15 IU / mg.
- CA-125 is responsible for pathological processes inOvaries. Ideally, its content in the blood should not exceed 30 IU / mg. If its number ranges from thirty to forty, a person is injected into a risk group, but when the indicator exceeds 40 IU / mg, cancer is diagnosed.
- CA-19-9 shows whether there are pathologicalProcesses in the pancreas. In healthy people, its amount does not exceed 30 IU / ml, and the disease in the active stage can be determined if the oncomarker content exceeds forty.
- CA-15-3 is responsible for the mammary glands. Less often can show the presence of tumors in the ovaries or bladder. The norm of its content is 9-38 IU / ml.
If the result is higher than normal
Doctors usually advise not to rely solely ontest results. The fact is that the increased content of this or that oncological marker may not be associated with the active development of cancer. This is why, in addition to the blood test, other clinical studies are prescribed that can more accurately describe the potential disease.
Now oncomarkers play a very importantRole in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Such tests are not only handed over to people who are predisposed to the disease, but also those who have already begun to fight this dangerous disease. In the latter case, blood is often given to the tumor markers to determine the effectiveness of the treatment.