Why do we need an olfaction and how does it control our life?
How it works?
The "decoding" of smells is not an easy mechanism. Many people think that we smell only nose, but it's the same as thinking what we hear with the tips of our ears. The nose is the conductor of the inhaled air to the olfactory receptors that are in front of the brain, where recognition occurs: the "smelling" molecule "connects" to the nerve cell, and the latter immediately sends a signal to different areas of the brain.
Perception of the smell of each individually and canDepend on genetics, environmental influences, diet, smoking, medication, emotional state, belonging to a particular race and even weather conditions. Scientists came to the conclusion that in the morning we smell worse than in the evening. In addition, in most people, the sense of smell is exacerbated in the spring and summer, as well as after exercise (due to increased humidity in the nose).
Sniff and remember
Smells can awaken memories (for example,The fragrance of perfume can remind the image of the first lover, and the flashing smell of cinnamon makes you remember your grandmother with her delicious cheesecakes). The smell, similar to the aromas that reigned in our grandmother's kitchen, will take you to your childhood faster than a photo of the same kitchen. By the way, this feature is used by doctors to treat patients who have lost memory. Studies conducted at the University of Toronto, show: memories caused by scents, the most clear and emotional. Scientists explain this by the fact that parts of the brain that recognize odors, incl. Are responsible for emotions and long-term memory.
To fall under the influence
American psychiatrist Alan Kirsch revealed thatSmells make us act. For example, buy more goods or less there. In one of the experiments, the typists printed 14% faster when a light aroma of citrus or cedar appeared in the air, and made 10% less errors. In some Japanese firms, with the help of aroma combinations, they increase productivity by 50%.
Nose in the wind
Runny nose and allergies are the most common causes of smelling problems.
Coryza. With a cold, when the mucous membrane swellsNose, the level of mucus rises, and the olfactory fibers stop capturing the smell in full and, consequently, transmit information about it to the brain, hypersmiration occurs (decreased perception of odors). If the edema does not fall off for a very long time, the ailment will develop into aposmia - a persistent non-distinction of odors.
Allergy. The smell can be allergic (likeUsually because of a genetic predisposition). Sneezing, lacrimation, reddening of the skin and swelling of the mucous membranes are common symptoms of hyperosmia (hypersensitivity to odor). The cause of allergies can be almost any scent from our environment, from citrus and needles to dust.
When the flair brings
The violation of the sense of smell is of two kinds -Peripheral and central. Without the help of a specialist, it is impossible to establish a species, so if you have problems with the perception of odors, visit the otorhinolaryngologist (and exclude the pathology of ENT organs - the neurologist).
Peripheral. When the sense of smell does not work in the nasal mucosa (t.Ie, where the information about the smell takes place), such a violation is considered peripheral. It often occurs during the runny nose, purulent diseases of the paranasal sinuses, the long use of nasal drops, polyps and tumors of the nasal cavity, as well as injuries to the nasal septum and infectious diseases.
Central. This violation is considered more serious, because Occurs at the level of the brain (ie at the place of processing and recognition of information about the smell). It can be associated with the pathology of the brain and requires detailed examination and treatment.
The mechanism of smell at the cellular-molecular levelIs still not fully understood. However, every year new studies appear that allow us to reveal the veil of secrecy and understand why many methods of treatment (including surgical ones) are in vain in the fight against various ailments caused by the violation of smell. It turns out that the reasons for the deviation are often found in the work of recently discovered molecules - cytokines in the nasal mucus. They also participate in the transmission of signals about the smell.
We choose, we are chosen
The sense of smell is like a gray cardinal: we pay little attention to it, but it interferes with all spheres of our life.
You draw a conclusion about a person by his words orActions? In part, yes. But our sense of smell, or rather the smell that comes from a person (whether it's a perfume or its natural smell), plays an important role in the psychological diagnosis that we put to people. Emotional reaction to odors arises in us unconsciously. You can decide that a person is rude, aggressive, just because you are irritated by his scent.
Smells not only help us evaluate people, butAnd can make you experience strong emotions. For example, to be nervous if we inhale the "smell of fear". Scientists at the Center for the Study of Chemistry in Montreal during the experiment gave the subjects to smell the mixture based on the smells of the sweat of frightened people and those who watched thrillers. Five minutes after the inspiration, the level of concern among the participants increased. And the smell of "horror movies" also increased their level of vigilance.
Aromas with character
We choose these or those spirits, because theirAromas reflect or emphasize our personality. But psychologists believe that the choice depends on our character, such as temperament. Extraverts, as a rule, prefer invigorating, fresh flavors, with green notes of wildlife. Introverts are more fond of oriental, rich flavors. A dual nature, dreamers and romantics, often choose floral and powder fragrances.
Man, woman and nose: the third is not superfluous!
Scientists from the University of Chico have come to the conclusion,That the female sense of smell is stronger than that of men. The difference in them is caused by many factors, cultural and hormonal. Historically, women in our society have always been forced to use their sense of smell more actively. They have traditionally been assigned such areas of "nose application" as cooking, flowers and perfume.
All such changeable
In addition, the female sense of smell is more variable thanmale. Estrogens increase the activity of the receptors, exacerbate the sense of smell in the first half of the menstrual cycle, at moments of sexual arousal, and also in the early months of pregnancy. Progesterones (in the second half of the cycle) reduce the ability to smell.
Choosing a partner
Representative of the weaker sex by smellfeel genetic differences in the immune system, choosing a male partner in their partners, whose genes are as different from their own as possible, in order to connect with them, give birth to children with a stronger immune system. In addition, through smells we get sexier signals stronger than visually. Most scientists agree that the aromas themselves are not aphrodisiacs, but the smells of our body (produced by our hormones) have a strong sexual appeal - like pheromones released by animals. Therefore, it is so important to choose a fragrance that, in conjunction with the smell of your body, will enhance your attractiveness, rather than push you away.
The romance was drawn
As shown by the research of American scientists,Most men have romantic feelings for a woman that cause scents of lavender, patchouli, sage, ylang ylang, amber, jasmine, tuberose. And some compositions can visually make a woman slimmer in the eyes of a man, for example a mixture of spices (cardamom, basil, pepper, saffron) with floral notes. Make the man trust you will help fruit and flower compositions.
Smell and taste: inseparable couple
Our taste sensations are the result of a jointwork of taste and smell. If you, for example, chew candy-snitch, clutching your nose, then feel only the texture. And having inhaled with a nose, you will understand, what at them taste - mint, apple or any another. Chewing food, you miss the air with its smell through the nasal sinuses, wherece the receptors send signals to the brain. Therefore, with a cold, food seems tasteless. Without the interaction of taste and smell, you deprive yourself of a wealth of taste sensations, limited to the basic gamut that the receptors of the tongue are able to distinguish - salty, sour, sweet, bitter and "Umami" (sodium glutamate). And the stronger the smell of food, the less we eat. Do not forget to cook with spices!