/ / Why immunity decreases and how to restore it

Why the immunity decreases and how to restore it

Immunity is not an "animal", but a "valiant army", without which our body would crumble like a house of cards from any draft.

Defenders of the body - immune cells (leukocytes)- mature in the bone marrow and thymus (thymus gland), turning into phagocytes (and other cells of innate immunity) and lymphocytes - cells of acquired immunity. Having mastered the "course of the young fighter," the travelers cells go to the spleen, tonsils, lymph nodes and vessels, the follicles of the digestive and respiratory tract, where they complete the preparation for carrying out "combat service".

Moving along tissues and organs together with lymph andBlood, leukocytes feel the receptors all that occurs in their path, and using a special code distinguish the cells of their body from the alien. When encountering a related substance, "warriors" peacefully part, and if they are "stranger" before them - they begin to attack.

Phagocytes form the first line of defense againstInfection. They "bind" microorganisms on their surface and absorb them - this is how innate immunity works. If the "army" of microbes-invaders is stronger, lymphocytes (another group of leukocytes) appear on the "battlefield". They produce antibodies that recognize the pathogen, wherever it is (inside cells, in the tissue fluid or blood), and help to destroy the infected cells - so the acquired immunity acts. But if we do not have the power to influence innate immunity, then the work that has been acquired depends to a large extent on our way of life.

3 SYSTEM FAILURE
Despite the phenomenal coherence of the immune system, it does not cease to be a mechanism that can fail. There are 3 types of violation of her work.

1 GROUP: IMMUNODEFICIENCY
Most often, when we say: "I lost immunity," we mean his temporary decline, which is being restored. Conditionally, this is the 1 st type of immunodeficiency. The second refers to cases when the immune system is constantly working at a low level or the immunity is completely lost.

Temporary reduction of immunity (acute respiratory viral infection, influenza, herpes, etc.)
Immunity can periodically "fall" duringOf the whole life, and there are many reasons for this: stress, overfatigue, malnutrition, bad habits (addiction to alcohol, smoking), lack of vitamins and sun (especially in the cold season), hypothermia, etc. - everything that everyone encounters from time to time. You seem to have nothing and do not hurt, but you become lethargic, the defenses of the body weaken, the work of the entire immune system worsens (the content of lymphocytes decreases, their performance decreases, including the production of antibodies). As a result, you can get sick, and the disease - "drag on" and entail complications.

Important. Scientists have proven that the flu is more likely to get sickUnmarried women, rather than those who are happy in marriage. In family people (as well as in active and sociable), more antibodies are produced that resist microbes than those who are closed and lonely.

Do not confuse the cause and effect of the fallImmunity. The cold itself can not weaken the immune system: you can pick it up, just because your immunity is initially weakened for some reason.

What to do. "Fell" immunity? Raise it in a complex way. Also these tips will help to avoid its reduction.

Food. Choose a balancedDiet. Eat less fat and more protein, which is contained in vitamin D and E-rich fish and lean meat; And fiber: vegetables - a storehouse of trace elements (zinc and selenium), necessary for the immune system, and in fruits - also vitamins B, vitamin C and tocopherol (a powerful antioxidant, necessary for immune cells). The lack of vitamins and trace elements will help make up biologically active supplements to improve immunity. Before buying them, check with your doctor and read the instructions carefully.

Physical activity. Regular fitness or sports activities increaseResistance of the body to infections. First, they accelerate the circulation of lymph - a fluid that delivers immune cells to the "battlefield" (its movement through the lymph vessels is due to contractions of the surrounding muscles). Secondly, active movements help keep warm. When you freeze, the speed of movement of defensive cells slows down, and they may not have time to attack the virus. By the way, an ordinary walk in the fresh air or a trip to the steam room (for example, a Russian bath) is a good training for immunity.

Sleep. During sleep, cytokines (molecules,Produced by lymphocytes). They stimulate the activity of immune cells and determine their survival. Therefore, make sure that rest is regular, and try not to violate the regime.
The daily rate of sleep is 7-8 hours, and the best way to adjust the regimen is to train yourself to go to bed and get up at the same time.

Sex. Scientists from Wilkes University in PennsylvaniaFound: those who have frequent sexual contacts (1-2 times a week), the level of immunoglobulin (antibodies) in the saliva is higher. This is another reason to find a permanent partner, if you do not have one yet.

Hygiene. Microbes are an integral part of our immune system.System. The disinfected world provokes frequent colds. And this is not surprising, because humanity has evolved with them for millions of years, so they are necessary for the formation of our immunity. Of course, nobody canceled personal hygiene, but it is better not to overdo it - find the balance.

Reception of medicines. Do not self-medicate: Without the appointment of a doctor, taking medications that increase immunity may not only be ineffective, but also dangerous. First, take a survey and make an immunogram determining the presence and status of immunodeficiency.

Continuous decrease or loss of immunity (alimphocytosis, AIDS, etc.)
Because of the lack or absence of the possibility to produce antibodies, the immune system fails or ceases to work. Violations occur:
  • With congenital or genetic diseases, when the immune system initially produces few antibodies;
  • During illnesses caused by prolonged intake of antibiotics;
  • In AIDS, when immunity disappears due toWhich multiplies in the immune cells of the HIV virus, which kills the antibody. The immune system can not neutralize it (virus-infected immune cells begin to produce themselves) and fail.
2 GROUP: ALLERGY AND ASTHMA
These are the cases when the immunity from the "defender"Turns into an "aggressor". With allergies, immune cells are hyperactive and inadequately respond to safe stimuli: wool, fluff, pollen, etc., and during asthma they are activated in the bronchi and lungs, causing spasms and making breathing difficult.

Important. Excessive activity of immune cells occursOnly at the time of attack or contact with the allergen, so allergies or asthma - no reason to think that there is no need to increase immunity. Alas, each of us is prone to colds and infections.

What to do. After testing, install the allergen. Drink prescribed antihistamines that reduce the symptoms of allergies, and avoid contact with the allergen. With asthma, inhalations are required to remove asthma.

3 GROUP: AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES
The main function of the immune system is the abilityDistinguish "his" from "someone else's". If it is broken, serious health problems arise. When, for unknown reasons, protective cells, instead of protecting themselves from germs and infections, begin to destroy cells in their body, autoimmune diseases occur.

Important. The target can be any tissue - kidney cells,Liver, stomach, brain, respiratory tract and eyes. Autoimmune diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, thyroid damage, etc.) are incurable, but it is possible to reduce the destructive effect.

What to do. To facilitate the course of the disease, experts recommend taking immuno-suppressive drugs that suppress rebellious immunity (according to prescription and under the supervision of a doctor).
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