General blood test: what can he tell about?
The main indicators that are evaluated in a general blood test are:
- Number of red blood cells
- Hemoglobin concentration
- Color index (CPU)
- Platelet count
- Number of leukocytes
- Leukocyte formula
- Sedimentation rate of erythrocytes (ESR)
Or, as they are also called, red bloodBodies are the main elements of our blood. Their number is normal in women and men is different. In women: 3,5 - 5,5, and in men: 4,5 - 5,5 trillion per liter of blood. A decrease in their number is called oligocytic anemia. It can occur as a result of a violation of blood formation or chronic blood loss.
This compound, which is contained in red blood cellsAnd performs the most important function of blood - the transfer of oxygen from the lungs to other organs, and carbon dioxide into the lungs. Normally, the figure for women is 120 - 150, and for men: 130 - 160 grams per liter of blood. Low hemoglobin means that blood can not "bind" and deliver enough oxygen to the tissues. This is often the case with anemia.
This is a quantity that shows the relationshipErythrocytes and hemoglobin; How much red blood cells are filled with hemoglobin. Normally, the indicator is in the range of 0.85 - 1.05. A high color index may indicate a shortage of red blood cells at a normal level of hemoglobin. Then the erythrocytes turn out to be "overcrowded" with hemoglobin. This happens, for example, with folic and B-12 deficiency anemia. Reducing the color index indicates that the red blood cells are not completely filled with hemoglobin. This happens when there is a violation of hemoglobin production. For example, with iron deficiency anemia.
This ratio between blood cells (shapedElements) and liquid (plasma). Normally, the hematocrit varies between 36 - 42% in women and 40 - 48% in men. The increase in the index is called hemoconcentration ("thickening" of the blood), and the decrease is called hemodilution ("dilution" of the blood).
These blood cells are responsible for blood clottingWith damage to blood vessels. Normally, they contain 150 - 450 billion in a liter of blood. Reducing the number of platelets (thrombocytopenia) leads to a violation of blood clotting. And an increase can be a sign of a blood tumor.
These cells perform very important blood functions,They provide immune protection. In healthy people, this indicator is in the range of 4 to 9 billion cells per liter of blood. Reduction of the white blood cell count indicates a violation of their production (this happens when the bone marrow is affected), and a rise - about an acute inflammatory disease. A significant increase in leukocytes (several tens or hundreds) occurs in blood tumors.
This is a set of indicators reflectingThe percentage of each type of leukocytes. These or other deviations in the leukocyte formula indicate the characteristics of the pathological process that takes place in the body. For example, if the content of neutrophils is increased, then we can talk about the bacterial nature of the disease, and if lymphocytes - about the virus. The increase in eosinophils indicates more often an allergic reaction, basophils - on blood tumors, and monocytes - on a chronic bacterial infection.
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate
This is the rate at which the erythrocytes settle to the bottomTest tubes with blood. In a healthy man, it is from 1 to 10 mm / h, and in a woman: from 2 to 15 mm / h. An increase in the indicator most often indicates inflammation.
We must not forget that to put the right diagnosisOne can not analyze the blood. For this, it is necessary to take into account a number of diagnostic data. In the aggregate, only a doctor can evaluate them correctly.