Surrogate motherhood issues
Questions of History
Surrogate motherhood has many centuries. Even in ancient Rome, wishing to earn men gave their young wives "rent" to childless couples. A child born from such a "hired" mother was later the legitimate child of this married couple. The services of a woman giving birth were generously paid for.
The ancient wealthy Jews have barren wivesResorted to the services of slaves who were used to give birth to children from the husband of this woman. The first during childbirth of the baby on hands at once took the lawful spouse, demonstrating the absolute right to the baby.
Scientific and technological progress together with the processWomen's emancipation gave rise to new ways of solving the problem of family infertility. The modern concept of "surrogate motherhood" is directly related to the technologies of artificial and extracorporeal fertilization. Today, genetic material is taken from both genetic parents (and not only from her husband, as before) and "planted" in a natural natural "incubator" - the organism of the selected surrogate mother.
The first successful example of surrogate motherhoodWas declared in 1980. Then the first surrogate mother was the 37-year-old large daughter Elizabeth Kane. A barren woman concluded a contract with Elizabeth, according to which artificial insemination was carried out with her husband's sperm. After giving birth, Kane received a cash reward. At the time, Elizabeth Kane had three children of her own.
There are many opponents of surrogateMotherhood, talking about turning children into a kind of product. In the opinion of feminists, this practice means the widespread exploitation of women as "incubators" who do not have their rights and choices. Religious figures see an immoral tendency that destroys the sanctity of the bonds of marriage and family.
There are also (quite justifiably) fears,That some women who are going to conception for the sake of the interests of another family can traumatize psychologically the need to give up a nurturing child. It happens that a child becomes "her own" during pregnancy, even if at first it seemed to the surrogate mother that she could easily part with the baby. This can really become a problem for both sides of the treaty, since no country has a law that forces a woman to give birth to a child she is born with. Many couples crash (psychologically and financially), paying the entire pregnancy to a woman, keeping her this time, giving her everything she wants, and then remaining without a child.
Issues of legislation
Laws aimed at regulationSurrogate motherhood, differ in different countries. So, in Germany, France, Norway, Austria, Sweden, in some US states, surrogate motherhood is outlawed. In some countries only non-commercial (voluntary and unpaid) surrogate motherhood is allowed - in the Australian state of Victoria, in Britain, Denmark, Canada, Israel, the Netherlands and some US states (Virginia and New Hampshire). In Greece, Belgium, Spain and Finland, surrogate motherhood is not regulated by law, but in fact often occurs.
Finally, in a number of countries surrogate motherhood,Both gratuitous and commercial, is permitted by law. This is a larger number of US states, Russia, South Africa, Kazakhstan, Belarus and Ukraine. An important moment in concluding an official agreement on surrogate surrogate motherhood is how much all its parties are aware of all possible risks.