Methods of contraception: intrauterine spiral "Mirena"
Advantages of the intrauterine device:
- This means of contraception is reversible and quite effective;
- Quite convenient in the application: "put and forget";
- There is practically no systemic hormonal effect on the body;
- Leads to a decrease in the duration and volume of menstrual blood loss;
- The frequency of inflammatory diseases of the pelvic organs decreases.
Properties and action of the contraceptive "Mirena".
Mirena is a contraceptive intrauterine deviceSystem, the rod of which has the appearance of an elastic cylinder made of plastic and contains the hormone levonorgestrel. In order for the system to better fit the shape of the uterus, it is manufactured in a T-shape. For convenient removal of the system from the body, at the lower end of the vertical part is a loop, to which are attached two strands. The levonorgestrel hormone contained in the intrauterine spiral Mirena is the most studied gestagene (semi-natural progesterone), and it is successfully used in various contraceptives.
"Mirena", is good for preventing pregnancy,She controls the monthly development of the inner shell of the uterus, and also prevents the movement of sperm into the uterus. When levonorgestrel enters the uterine cavity, it has a local effect on the endometrium, thereby preventing proliferative changes and decreasing its implant function. Thus, the endometrium can not achieve the necessary maturity, as a result, pregnancy does not occur. Levonorgestrel promotes an increase in the viscosity of the mucus of the cervical canal, thus protecting the uterus from sperm penetration and thereby impeding the fertilization of the oocyte. It can also be noted that levonorgestrel has a small systemic effect, which manifests itself in the suppression of ovulation in an unlimited number of cycles.
Efficacy of the contraceptive"Mirena", can be compared with the sterilization of a woman. To date, the "Mirena" in its effectiveness is not worse than the most effective copper-containing intrauterine spirals and oral contraceptives.
Indications for the use of the intrauterine spiral Mirena are:
- Excessive menstrual bleeding (menorrhagia);
- Protection from hyperplasia during replacement therapy with estrogens.
- Pregnancy prevention (contraception);
Contraindications to the application of "Mirena" are:
- Presumptive or established pregnancy;
- Cancer of the cervix or uterus (suspicion of it);
- Abnormalities of the uterus or cervix, including those caused by fibroids that lead to deformation of the uterine cavity;
- Dysplasia of the cervix with atypia;
- Vaginal bleeding of incomprehensible origin;
- Infection of the uterus after abortion during the last 3 months;
- Infection of the lower parts of the genito-urinary tract;
- Inflammatory diseases of the pelvic organs
- Infection of the cervix;
- Postpartum infection of the uterus;
- Acute diseases or liver tumors;
- Diseases that are accompanied by increased sensitivity to infections;
- Individual intolerance to the components of the Navy Mirena;
- mammary cancer.
Use during pregnancy and lactation.
In pregnancy, use of intrauterineSpiral "Mirena" is contraindicated. But if suddenly during its use pregnancy has come, the system should be immediately removed. Because, in the event that Mirena remains in the uterus during pregnancy, there is a high risk of premature birth or an infected miscarriage. During lactation, the use of Mirena is possible - gestagens, which are used for contraception, do not affect the quality and quantity of breast milk.
Side effects of VSM Mirena
In the very first months after the installation of the IUD"Mirena" may have some side effects, which, as a rule, disappear within a couple of months and do not require additional therapy. One of the side effects that may occur is a change in menstrual bleeding, which indicates a physiological response to the action of the Mirena spiral. Often there are irregular intervals between bleeding, spotting spotting, heavy bleeding or pain during menstruation, complete cessation of menstruation, or lengthening the time of menstruation. We also note that 12% of women had ovarian cysts during the period of using Mirena.
With an increase in the size of the follicles (ovaries)Sometimes medical intervention is required. The method of contraception with the use of "Mirena" in some women can cause skin allergic reactions. If such contraception was not effective, then there is the possibility of developing an ectopic pregnancy. The intrauterine device "Mirena" can be very harmful, due to the fact that it can cause diseases of the pelvic organs, possibly even serious ones. In addition, the application of the Navy Mirena can perforate the wall of the uterus.
Observations showed that after using the spiral1-10% of women were: abdominal pain, nausea, pelvic or back pain, acne, weight gain, fluid retention, headache, breast tenderness, nervousness, mood instability, depression, vaginal bleeding, inflammation Channel of the cervix. Less than one percent of women, there were: infections of the genitals, hair loss or excessive growth, decreased sexual desire, skin itching. And less than 0.1% of women were seen: migraine, urticaria, skin rash, bloating, eczema. Similar side effects have also occurred in cases of using "Mirena" for hormone replacement therapy in combination with estrogens.