Threat of abortion: causes, symptoms, treatment
Threat of abortion: causes, symptoms, treatment.
They divide the threat of interruption into two groups. If it develops before the 28-week period, it is a threat of spontaneous abortion or miscarriage. If the period is 28-37 weeks, it is already a threat of premature birth (a premature baby is able to survive in these terms).
Causes of interruption
Often abortion occursFor several reasons. Sometimes it is difficult to determine what was the starting point, but for further tactics of the doctor it is very important. There are various reasons for the threat of interruption:
- Hormonal disorders
Most often this is a deficiency of progesterone,It is produced up to 16 weeks with a yellow body, after - the placenta. Quite often there is a combination of a deficiency of estrogens and progesterone (a pregnancy hormone). As a result, the endometrium does not fully develop and the fetal egg can not be implanted securely in the uterus. To the threat of interruption leads and the excess of male sex hormones - androgens, which reduces the content of estrogens. Also, if the functions of other hormonal organs (adrenal glands, pituitary gland, thyroid gland) are disturbed, indirectly affecting the operation of the ovaries, this too can cause a threat of interruption.
- Viral and infectious diseases
In the threat of interruption in the first place are to blameInfectious and inflammatory diseases of the female sexual sphere (trichomoniasis, cytomegalovirus, ureaplasmosis, chlamydia and others). Infectious agents cause inflammation in the genitals, rise up, infect the membranes, cause their damage, which leads to the threat of interruption. In addition, aggravate the threat of interruption by affecting the placenta, disrupting the nutrition of the fetus and causing malformations. Common infectious diseases (pneumonia, rubella, influenza) are no less important. The cause of miscarriage in this case is a lack of vitamins, fetal hypoxia, intoxication, fever.
- Pathology of the uterus
Acquired diseases (myoma and others) orCongenital malformations of the uterus are also a cause of the threat of interruption. This is due to the pathology of the endometrium, the lack of hormones, the inferiority of the structure of the uterus.
- Isthmicocervical insufficiency
Simply put, a gaping, inferior cervix of the uterus. It develops due to hormonal insufficiency or as a result of mechanical injuries (cervical ruptures during childbirth, abortions).
- Genetic abnormalities
As a result of genetic abnormalities of the fetusUp to 70% of early miscarriages occur. Such violations can be associated with heredity, adverse environmental conditions, occupational hazards.
- Pathological conditions developing at the time of pregnancy
These include placenta previa, polyhydramnios, gestosis, as a result of which the blood supply in the placenta is disrupted, the fetus begins to suffer, which leads to the threat of interruption.
- Chronic Somatic Diseases of women
Pyelonephritis, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, heart defects also lead to a threat and a violation of uteroplacental blood flow.
Symptoms of interruption
Pain is the main sign of the threat of interruption. It can be of a different nature: from intense and cramped to aching. Different and localization of pain: in the lower back, in the sacrum, in the lower abdomen. At a later date, a woman begins to feel a hypertonic - "petrification" of the uterus. Sometimes the increased tone of the uterus is established with the help of ultrasound, when there are no complaints of pain. It happens to be local (on a certain site) or general. A more dangerous sign - bleeding from the genital tract, is less common. The character of bloody discharge is different: from smearing to mild. Scarlet, bright discharge is a sign of detachment of the fetal egg that is taking place at the moment. If the secretion is dark bloody, then it speaks of the old detachment of the fetal egg, as a result of which a hematoma formed and began to empty.
Emotional and physical rest is the basisTreatment of the threat of interruption. To this end, prescribe sedatives (valerian, motherwort) and bed rest. Hypertension of the uterus helps to remove spasmolytics: spazgan, papaverine, but-shpa. At later dates, after 16 weeks, tocolytics are prescribed, such as: a solution of alcohol, ginipral, partusisten. To stop bleeding, hemostatics are used (sodium etamzilate, dicinone). In cases of hormone deficiency, drugs that replace progesterone (Dufaston, Utrozhestan) are used.