Malignant education as a medical and social problem
Causes of malignant tumors
Malignant neoplasm can occur inAny age. However, most of them are found in people older than 50 years. Usually, cancer develops gradually over many years under the influence of a combination of ecological, dietary, behavioral and hereditary factors. The causes of the appearance of tumors are not fully understood, but it is known that certain lifestyle characteristics can significantly reduce the risk of developing the majority of cancer diseases. For example, smoking cessation, healthy eating and moderate exercise reduce the risk of cancer by more than 60%.
Advances in medicine
Early diagnosis and treatment of malignantTumors significantly increase the chances of survival of the patient. In addition, modern advances in identifying mechanisms for their development have helped to reduce mortality and give hope for the development of better methods of treatment in the future. A few decades ago, the diagnosis of cancer left little hope of survival, as there was insufficient information about the nature of this disease and how to effectively combat it. Today in developed countries up to 60% of all cancer patients live more than five years, which significantly improves the further prognosis. Each organ consists of several types of tissues. Most malignant tumors arise from one of the three main types of tissue - epithelial, connective or hematopoietic.
• Carcinoma is a malignant tumor,Arising from epithelial tissue (tissue lining the surface of the skin and the shell of internal organs - for example, lungs, stomach and large intestine). Carcinomas include 90% of all cases of malignant neoplasms.
• Sarcoma originates from connective tissue, toWhich include muscular, bone, cartilaginous and fatty tissue. Sarcomas are much less common than carcinomas, accounting for only about 2% of malignant tumors.
• Leukemia develops from the hematopoietic tissue, and lymphomas develop from the lymphatic.
Malignant neoplasm oftenIt is diagnosed when the patient notices unusual symptoms and consults the therapist. Having studied the anamnesis and having conducted a thorough examination, the doctor evaluates the symptoms and sends the patient to the oncology unit for further examination. In the diagnosis of cancer, a number of methods are used to judge the presence or absence of a tumor process in the body.
• endoscopic methods, allowing to examine the internal cavities of the body;
• laboratory diagnostics;
• visualization methods (computer and magnetic resonance imaging).
When a tumor is detected, the oncologistThe biopsy is done by taking a small sample of the tissue, which is then examined under a microscope to see if the tumor is benign or malignant. If the tumor is malignant, the stage of the tumor process is determined.
Methods of treatment
Modern oncology has a number of methods for treating malignant neoplasms. Their choice depends on the type of tumor and the stage of the disease. The main methods of treatment in oncology are:
• surgical intervention - including laser and minimally invasive surgical techniques;
• Immunotherapy - methods aimed at stimulating the immune responses of the body or using antibodies to directly affect cancer cells;
• hormone therapy - use of hormones to fight malignant tumors;
• Radiation therapy - use of ionizing radiation to destroy the tumor;
• chemotherapy - the use of potent antitumor drugs.
In the treatment of cancer, there is often a need forA combination of several methods (for example, surgery or radiotherapy, followed by a transition to chemotherapy). In the case of early detection of a tumor and the absence of metastases, surgical treatment usually gives the best results. In some types of tumors, for example, cervical, larynx and skin cancer, minimally invasive surgical techniques (for example, laser surgery) can be used. In some cases, surgical or other treatment is performed to improve the quality of life of the patient or eliminate unpleasant symptoms, even if this does not give a chance of recovery. This therapy is called palliative. Unlike surgery, radiation therapy can destroy microscopic cancer cells that have spread to surrounding tissues. In addition, for older or weaker patients, this method is usually accompanied by a lower risk than surgery.