/ / Blood is the main constituent organ

Blood is the main constituent organ

Erythrocytes

Erythrocytes are red blood cells, which, thanks to the contained, in them a special protein - hemoglobin, perform in the body three basic functions: transport, regulatory and protective.

There are certain norms for the number of red blood cells in men's blood (4.0-5.01012 / L) and for women (3.9-4.7 / L). This parameter is determined by a general blood test. Deviations are possible in both directions.


How the blood is arranged

Blood is a fluid medium that performs metabolic and transport functions in the body.

Several bodies participate in these processes:

Red bone marrow;

The lymph nodes;

Thymus gland (thymus);

Spleen, liver and kidneys. The main miracle of hematopoiesis (hemopoiesis) occurs in the red bone marrow: it is there that special stem cells are called, which is called a single polypotent stem cell (CPM). All "working bees" of our blood - the main constituent organ, that is, its uniform elements: red blood cells, leukocytes, platelets, originate from it. The life cycle of different blood cells is from 1C to 120 days. After this period, cells that have fulfilled their function must be filtered and removed from the body. This is done by special "filters" - the spleen, liver and kidneys. In place of the retired "fighters" immediately enter new ones. And so all my life.


Protective

Participate in specific and nonspecific immunity.


Erythrocytosis

This increase in the number of erythrocytes per unit volumeBlood - the main constituent organ. Erythrocytosis is rare enough (usually a symptom of some other disease). The most common options are:

Primary erythrocytosis (true polycythemia);

Secondary erythrocytosis.

The conditions under which it happens: "high-altitude" erythrocytosis (natural physiological elevation of red blood cells when at high altitude);

Some types of intoxication of the body;

Congenital heart defect;

Malignant tumor (kidney);

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease;

Stomach ulcer, erythropenia and anemia.

This is a reduction in the red blood cell count. Erythropenia, as a rule, is a sign of the most common blood disease - anemia (in another - anemia).

This decrease in blood - the main componentOrgan of the total amount of hemoglobin (norm 130-160 g / l for men and 120-150 g / l for women), in which, in most cases, the level of erythrocytes also decreases.


Causes of anemia:

Loss of blood (with wounds, ulcers, chronic infections, too heavy menstruation);

Disorders of the immune system or function of the endocrine glands;

pregnancy;

Anatomophysiological immaturity of the hemopoiesis organs (for example, in children of the first year of life), etc.

The basis of most anemias is a violation"production" of hemoglobin. In order to synthesize it uninterruptedly and in the right quantities, our body needs: iron, protein, vitamin B6, vitamin B12 and vitamin B7 (folic acid). Lack of at least one of them leads to a decrease in the level of hemoglobin. The main sign of anemia is the pallor of the skin and general lethargy. If you do not go to the doctor on time, you may have more serious symptoms:

swelling of the extremities;

decreased appetite;

diarrhea or constipation;

dry skin, brittle nails, dullness and hair loss;

seizures in the corners of the mouth or stomatitis;

Shortness of breath, tachycardia, systolic murmur.

With anemia, colds may become more frequent, possiblythe appearance of taste and olfactory perversions (you want to chew chalk or plaster, eat raw foods - potatoes, meat, dough or groats, inhale the sharp smells - paint, acetone, lacquer).


What to do

The most common form of anemia is iron deficiency. If it is identified, first of all it is necessary to establish the correct diet and regimen.

Folk recipes from anemia

3 unpurified apples cut, pour 1 liter of boiled water, boil 10 minutes. on low heat, insist half an hour and add honey. 1 glass 2-3 times a day

300 g of garlic to pass through a meat grinder, pour1 liter of alcohol, insist 2-3 weeks and take 20 drops in milk 3 times a day. In the morning and evening swallow whole (to avoid smell) on an empty stomach for 4-5 small cloves of garlic;

List of products from which should be includeddiet is quite extensive. This is protein food (veal), and cereals (oatmeal-oatmeal, buckwheat, millet, oatmeal, legumes), and vegetables (parsley root, spinach, dill, carrots, beets, tomatoes, parsley), and fruits (citrus, blackcurrant , peaches, apricots, cherry plums, pears, apples), and dried fruits (dried apricots, raisins, dates). Bread is also useful from wholemeal flour, honey and almonds. If the body experiences a severe iron deficiency, the emphasis is better on meat products: they contain its so-called heme form (iron, combined with protein). You should also consider the compatibility of products. So, it is known that some of them interfere with the assimilation of iron (tea, bran, fats, and dairy and flour dishes in combination with meat), while others, on the contrary, help (orange and grapefruit juice, broccoli).


... Or tablets for lunch?

One correct diet for anemia is indispensable. It is desirable to undergo a course of therapy with iron preparations. Drugs should be taken only on the prescription of a doctor and under his supervision after a preliminary examination (the minimum amount of examination: a clinical blood test, serum iron, ferritin, transferrin).

Leukocytes

White blood cells are white blood cells that are divided into several types:

Granoisocytes (granular); neutrophils; eosinophils; basophils.

Agranooocytes (non-grained); lymphocytes; monocytes.

The main purpose of all leukocytes is to participate inVarious types of body protection against harmful foreign agents (immune defense, phagocytosis, pinocytosis, complement system, etc.). As well as for red blood cells, for leukocytes there are certain norms of their quantity in the blood (4,0 - 9,0109 / l). Since leukocytes are involved in the body's defense system, their deficiency undermines the natural struggle with pathogens of a variety of diseases. And the consequences are unpredictable.


Leukemia: do not miss the moment

The most common diseases,Leading to a change in the number of leukocytes of any type, are leukemia (leukemia) - a group of malignant diseases of the hematopoiesis system, which are sometimes united by the common name "blood cancer". The starting point of the disease is the mutation and transformation of bone marrow cells responsible for hemopoiesis (that is, the production of blood cells). The danger of leukemia is that in the early stages they are almost not manifested - fatigue increased slightly (everyone gets tired!), I want to sleep during the day (so chronic is not enough!), It's hard to breathe and my head is spinning (which is how ecology knows what!). The causes of leukemia are not yet fully understood. Frequent cases when the disease is transmitted by inheritance, so if there were cases of blood cancer in the family (even in the side branches), one should pay special attention to one's health: go to the doctor regularly and make a blood test for leukemia markers. There are combined regimens for the treatment of blood cancer, conducted in specialized centers.


Platelets

Platelets are blood plates, the main function of which is to stop bleeding (hemostasis).

In addition, platelets take part in the protectionorganism from foreign agents: have phagocytic activity, are the source of lysozyme and p-lysines, capable of destroying the membranes of certain bacteria, and also release into the blood specific compounds that protect the body from getting pathogens.

There are certain norms of contentthrombocytes in the blood (180-360 109 / l). Deviations are possible in both directions, but the pathological condition is only a decrease in the number of thrombocytes, that is, thrombocytopenia. Like all diseases associated with platelets, thrombocytopenia is directly related to hemostasis - the process of stopping bleeding. With the help of thrombocytes, the so-called vascular-platelet hemostasis is realized. It is broken, then on the patient's body there are multiple bruises and hemorrhages, nasal bleeding increases (and, possibly, uterine, renal, gastric, etc.).


Hemostasis: two extremes

Either the blood "too well" stops -so that impassable blood clots form in the vessels (thrombosis, myocardial infarction, stroke) or, on the contrary, it is very difficult to stop (hemophilia is a rare disease that affects only men). These diseases are associated not only with vascular-platelet hemostasis. With the participation of only platelets, severe bleeding associated with damage to large blood vessels (arteries, veins, arterioles) can not be stopped. Here, another system of hemostasis enters into action - plasma hemostasis (participation of plasma coagulation factors). Fortunately, hemostatic diseases are much less common than other hereditary hematologic diseases.


What is autohemotherapy

The method of treatment of sluggish infectiousdiseases (for example, furunculosis and acne, which can not be corrected). It consists in intramuscular or subcutaneous injection of the patient's own blood taken from the vein (sometimes in combination with ozone therapy). Thus, the protective functions of the body are stimulated and metabolic processes are improved. It is recommended for patients who are contraindicated in antibiotics. The main condition - the procedure should be performed by a qualified specialist.


What kind of blood, what is sick

There are reports that people with different blood types are susceptible to various diseases:

Group I: gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer;

Group II: diabetes mellitus, stomach and genital cancers, increased blood coagulability, respectively, heart attacks and strokes;

III group: colon cancer;

IV group: cardiac and oncological diseases, anemia.

Pay attention to: