A correct understanding of the culture of nutrition in everyday life
Culture of nutrition is:
- Knowledge of the foundations of proper nutrition;
- Knowledge of the properties of products and their effects on the body, their ability to choose and prepare correctly, making the most of all useful substances;
- Knowledge of the rules for serving meals and eating food; Knowledge of the culture of consumption of ready meals;
- Economical attitude to food.
The most important principles of rational nutrition:
Correspondence of caloric content of food to daily expenses of energy by a person. Violation of this conformity causes differentDisturbances in the body. It should be remembered that a regular decrease in the calorie content of the products consumed leads to a decrease in body weight, a significant decrease in working capacity and overall activity, an increase in predisposition to various diseases. Extremely dangerous at the same time is the super-calorie content of daily portions, from which a person derives potential energy more than he needs for normal functioning of the body. Systematic increase in calorie content of food leads to a significant increase in body weight, obesity, which also entails health problems.
Satisfaction of the needs of the body in the right amount and the ratio of nutrients. For optimum digestion of food,Supply the body with all food substances in certain proportions. When compiling food rations, first of all, the balance of proteins, fats and carbohydrates is taken into account. For an adult healthy person, their ratio should be 1: 1.2: 4.6. Taking into account the physiological state of the organism, the nature and working conditions, the sex and age of the individual, the climatic features of the region, scientists have developed standards for physiological needs in food substances and energy of various population groups. They make it possible to make a diet for each family. However, it is important to remember that the diet should contain the optimal amount of nutrients balanced among themselves, i.e. Have the proper chemical composition.
Diet. It includes time and frequency of receptionsFood, the intervals between them, the distribution of caloric intake by meals. The optimal for a healthy person is four meals a day, but three meals a day are allowed, depending on the working or study conditions. Each meal should last at least 20 - 30 minutes. This makes it possible to eat slowly, well chew food and, most importantly, do not overeat. Certain hours of food intake allow the digestive system to get used to a stable regime and allocate the right amount of digestive juices. With four meals a day, you should distribute caloric intake by meals as follows: 1st breakfast - 18%, 2nd breakfast - 12%, lunch - 45%, dinner -25%. Suppose that with three meals a day breakfast is 30%, lunch - 45%, dinner - 25%. But remember: regardless of the diet, the last meal should be 1.5 - 2 hours before bedtime.
With three meals a breakfast usually consists of a hot dish (meat or fish with cereal or vegetables, a sandwich and some hot drink - coffee, tea, cocoa).
Lunch should return the body energy, whichHe spent the entire working day. When digesting a large amount of food there is an increased allocation of gastric juices, so in the lunch menu you need snacks: salads from vegetables, salad, salted fish, etc. The production of gastric juice is also helped by the first hot dishes, which are rich in extractive substances: meat, fish, and mushroom broths. In the second hot dish should contain a large amount of protein, there is an increased calorie content. To finish the dinner is best a sweet dish that will inhibit the secretion of gastric juice and will cause a pleasant sense of satisfaction from eating.
For dinner, dishes from milk, cereals and vegetables are preferred. Do not eat meat dishes, because they are slowly digested.
Particular attention should be paid to moderation inNutrition, which is expressed not only in the frequency of food intake, but mainly in the quality side of nutrition: the chemical composition of food corresponds to the needs of the body. In order to eat sensibly, everyone should have an idea about the composition of the products, their biological value, and the transformation of nutrients in the body.