Rhesus-conflict - complication of pregnancy
Rhesus factor (D-antigen) is a specificProtein, which is located on the surface of red blood cells (red blood cells - blood cells, bringing oxygen to the tissues). People with this protein present on red blood cells, respectively, are Rh-positive (about 85% of people). If this protein is absent, then the blood of such a person is called Rh-negative (10-15% of the population). Rhesus belongs to the fetus at the earliest stages of pregnancy. In itself, a negative Rh factor does not pose any danger to humans. This is just one of the characteristics of the body. His cunning, he can manifest during pregnancy of the Rh-negative future mother.
It includes mummies with Rh-negativeBlood, whose husbands are carriers of a positive Rh factor. In this case, their child can inherit a Rh-positive gene (which is stronger) from the father. And then there can be a rhesus-conflict, or incompatibility by blood between the mother and the fetus. With a "negative" fruit, the "negative" mother of the conflict will never arise. In some cases, the conflict occurs if a woman, for example, I blood type, and the baby - II or III. However, the incompatibility of the blood group is not as dangerous as in the Rh factor.
Why the conflict?
Let's see why there is such aComplication of pregnancy, like Rh-conflict? During pregnancy, erythrocytes with the Rh factor of the "positive fetus" enter the bloodstream of the "negative" mother. Rhesus-positive blood of the baby is for the "negative" organism of the mother of a foreign protein (strong antigen). And the body of the mother begins to produce special cells-antibodies to the Rh factor, which means that the baby's body. They are harmless for a woman, but destroy the red blood cells of a child.
Danger to the baby!
Disintegration - hemolysis of erythrocytes leads to developmentHemolytic disease of the fetus, this in turn leads to damage to the kidneys and brain, anemia develops. If the erythrocytes are constantly destroyed, the liver and spleen try to fill their reserve and increase in size. The main signs of hemolytic disease of the fetus are an increase in the liver and spleen in it, which is determined by ultrasound. Also, the increased amount of amniotic fluid and the thickened placenta are signs of hemolytic disease of the fetus. In this case, the baby is born with damaged red blood cells, that is anemia. After the birth of the mother's antibody in the baby's blood, they continue for some time their destructive effect. The child has hemolytic anemia and jaundice. There are three clinical forms of hemolytic disease of newborns:
Jaundice form Is the most frequent clinical form. The child is usually born on time, with normal body weight, without visible discoloration of the skin. Already on the 1st-2nd day of life there is jaundice, which is rapidly growing. Yellow color and have amniotic fluid and original grease. There is an increase in the liver and spleen, there is a slight swelling of the tissues.
Anemic form - the most benign, occurs in 10-15% of cases and is manifested by pallor, poor appetite, lethargy, enlarged liver and spleen, anemia, moderate bilirubin increase.
Edema form Hemolytic disease is the heaviest. With an early immunological conflict, miscarriage may occur. If the pregnancy can be transmitted to the end, the child is born with severe anemia, hypoxia, metabolic disorders, edema of tissues and cardiopulmonary insufficiency.
The development of hemolytic disease is not alwaysIs determined by the concentration of isoimmune antibodies (from its own antibodies, its own antibodies) to the mother. The degree of maturity of the newborn is important: the disease is more serious in premature infants.
Hemolytic disease of newbornsIncompatibility in the ABO system proceeds somewhat more easily than with Rh-conflict. But with maternal diseases during pregnancy, there may be an increase in the permeability of the placental barrier and then it is possible to form more severe forms of hemolytic disease.
The first pregnancy is safe
If the "negative" mother gets into the bodyA certain amount of "positive" fetal blood, then only her body begins to produce antibodies. There is sensitization of the mother's body, as if "irritation". And this "irritation" with each time, that is, with each pregnancy, increases. Therefore, in most cases, the first pregnancy with a "positive" fetus for a "negative" mother goes almost without deviations. With each subsequent pregnancy, the risk of developing Rh-conflict is greatly increased. Therefore, it is very important to explain to the "negative" woman the effect of abortion on her subsequent pregnancy. They dramatically increase the risk of Rhesus-conflict.
We hand over analyzes.
Although Rhesus-conflict is a complication of pregnancy, butAs we have already found out, only a child suffers from it. Therefore, judging the severity of this conflict on the condition of a pregnant woman makes no sense. The future mommy can feel great, have an excellent appetite and good health. Analyzes are very important in this case. When a pregnant woman is registered in a women's clinic, the first thing she does is determine the blood group and Rh possesity. If it turns out that the future mommy is Rh-negative, then she is assigned an analysis for the presence of antibodies. If antibodies are not found, then it must take this analysis every month for their timely detection. If antibodies are found, then antibodies for such a pregnant woman should be tested more often. According to them, the doctor determines the antibody titer, that is, their concentration in the blood, also observes whether there is a tendency to increase them with time. If the antibody titer increases, the pregnant woman is prevented from hemolytic disease of the fetus. The woman is given antiresus-gamma-globulin and other drugs that help reduce the formation of antibodies.
Previously it was read that a woman who, duringOf pregnancy was a rhesus-conflict, can not breast-feed his baby, because antibodies are contained in her breast milk and aggravate the condition of a "positive" baby. This is not entirely correct. Indeed, it is impossible to breast-feed for two weeks a woman who had Rh-conflict and the baby was born with hemolytic disease. The rest of the mothers, who had antibodies during pregnancy, but the baby was born healthy, can feed the baby with breast milk, but first they inject antiresus-gamma globulin.
Tune in for the best.
According to statistics, only 8% of cases,Rh-negative mummy, a Rh-positive baby may appear. And many Rhesus-negative mothers are bearing and giving birth to two and three healthy babies. And only 0.9% of pregnant women develop a complication of pregnancy - Rhesus-conflict. So, do not pre-adjust yourself to problems, if you found out that you have Rh-negative blood. If you follow all the recommendations of your doctor-gynecologist, take tests on time, then the risk of complications in Rh-negative Mom and her Rh-positive baby is minimized.