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Fitness for beginners

Good endurance is inherited, butIt can be improved by cardioversion: running, and if it is contraindicated, walking on an elliptical trainer or a treadmill, low-impact aerobics, water aerobics. Enough three workouts per week for 50 minutes: 10 minutes - warm-up, about 30 minutes - the main exercises and 15 minutes - a hitch, during which the pulse calms down. And so 1,5-2 months, and then, if you do not miss classes, endurance improves, sports opportunities expand.

Heart rate (heart rate) is monitored withUsing a heart rate monitor - personal or built-in simulator. If during training it is higher than acceptable, lower the tempo or remove a few weighting factors.


Calculation of heart rate according to Carvonen's formula

Lying and relaxed, count the "pulse of rest". Determine the upper permissible limit of the heart rate according to the formulas:

For low endurance - (220 - age - pulse of rest) x 0.65 + pulse of rest;
For average endurance - (220 - age - pulse of rest) x 0.75 + pulse of rest.


Latent hypertension

A man with overweight comes to the gym. It seems and feels normal, and the test on the bicycle ergometer shows an average, endurance ... It would seem that there are no obstacles. But we measure blood pressure after the test load on the cardio and get 160/95 mm Hg. Art. This is the so-called hypertonic type of reaction to the load, and in this case, even with moderate endurance sports claims should be limited to the level of a beginner, doctors warn.

After 2 months of training a person, most likely,Will lose several kilograms, the pressure will be normalized, and the load can be increased. Monitor blood pressure before and after the load should be within 2 weeks. Probably, the cardiologist also will be necessary for inspection.


Gutta-percha dislocation

You're on a treadmill. You awkwardly turn your foot and - oh! It remains only to overcome the pain, dock to the house. You can prevent this trouble by knowing in advance whether you have a tendency to dislocations, that is, what is the condition of the ligaments.


Flexibility test

Try to maximize your thumbBent brush to the inner surface of the forearm, not helping yourself with the other hand. Normally, the distance is 7-10 cm. If less than 7 cm or a finger touches the forearm, you have soft ligaments.

With soft ligaments, the risk of injuries is increased, there isPredisposition to dislocations, rupture of ligaments, microtrauma of the spine. During aerobic exercises, exercises with the bar, wear the locks, while running, use the special running shoes. To avoid microtraumas and even rupture of ligaments, do stretching exercises only after warming up or in water. And be sure to try to create and maintain a muscular corset in good shape - it will protect you from injuries.


Microhazards for the spine


"Micro" is, of course, something small,Insignificant. But only at first glance. Long, regular microtrauma of the spine and joints lead to chronic diseases: osteochondrosis, osteoarthrosis and others.

What to do? Wait until the unfamiliar to the load get strongerMuscles. Not lying on the couch, of course. Start not with aerobics and sports dances, but with swimming (preferably breaststroke or on the back), aqua aerobics, pilates. Strength exercises should be performed only with a small weight - for example, with dumbbells of 0.5 kg, lying on your back or stomach, to exclude vertical loads on the spine. Weight weighting increase gradually.

Take care of the neck! You can not sharply swing your head (as many people do), carrying it to the left, right, back, forward. Only smoothly, slowly, so as not to injure the cervical vertebrae. Even shaking the press, do not forget about the neck: do not pull it with your hands, trying to tilt your head, but simply clasp your fingers on the back of your head; Legs lift up the muscles of the abdomen, and not the neck.

And yet - and this is not a joke - is very important duringLearn to smile at ease! This simple action relaxes the cervical spine. A tightly compressed lips, a frowning forehead and clenched teeth, on the contrary, cause reflex muscle tension. So smile more often!


Risky moves for the beginner's back

► Back rotation with simultaneous forward tilt;
► lifting of gravity with simultaneous turning to the side;
► When exercising with weighting, tilt the body forward from the standing position and especially straighten out of this position (even a shift of the vertebrae relative to each other is possible, if they are already damaged);
► any axial load on the spine - for good reason doctors do not like the bar so much.

And in conclusion, a general recommendation for all: Avoid unnecessary loads.

Excessive efforts do not provide a healing effect, but, on the contrary, reduce immunity. It is not difficult to control yourself during classes.


Speaking test

Funny, but accurate. If during the training you are able to pronounce a couple of phrases, to sing "in the forest a fir tree was born," and at the same time you want to breathe in every 3 words - everything is fine. If you choke on everyone - reduce the load.


Pain test

The next morning after training, you must calmlyGet out of bed, not cursing the world for pain in the muscles. There is nothing good in this pain: it is 80% associated with microtraumas of muscle fibers, and not at all with the formation of lactic acid, as many people think. Next time, warm up more, choose a smaller load. A good sign is that after 48 hours you start the next class and you do not hurt.

The training is stopped with dizziness, feelingSuffocation, dyspnea, the appearance of cold sweat, flies before the eyes, with a pulse of more than 100 ud. Min (even during a long rest), a significant increase in blood pressure or a 25% decrease in the blood pressure.

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