/ / Formation of immunity in children. Part 2

Formation of immunity in children. Part 2

At this stage, confront specificInfections are helped or assisted only by mums immunoglobulins, received still in utero. They protect crumbs from those infections with which the mother has had or has been vaccinated (diphtheria, poliomyelitis, measles, rubella, chicken pox). Also at this time the intestine begins to be populated with bacteria. In addition, useful microorganisms and immunoglobulins the baby receives with an artificial mixture or milk of the mother. Penetrating into the intestine, these substances make it slimy inaccessible to pathogenic microorganisms, thereby protecting the crumb from many infections and allergies. But breast-milking crumbs are better protected. After all, along with milk, they also get antibodies to the infections that Mom already had.

Since at this time the baby is exposed to a largeRisk of diseases, the circle of communication should be limited to the next of kin - those people with whom he lives. Getting from the maternity home to the apartment and communicating with the parents, the child gradually gets used to the "home" microflora, and it becomes safe for him. If visitors come to the house, ask them to wash their hands with soap and show them crumbs from afar.

In this period it is necessary, on the one hand, strictlyObserve the rules of hygiene, and on the other - do not overdo it. Otherwise, the necessary microbes can not colonize the skin and mucous membranes, in addition, the sterile atmosphere will not allow you to fight bacteria and develop the immune system. To maintain balance, it is enough 2-3 times a week to do a wet cleaning, vacuuming upholstered furniture and every time before you approach a newborn, wash your hands thoroughly with soap.

The immune response
3-6 months - the second critical period. Maternal antibodies are gradually destroyed and by 6 months they completely leave the body. Infections begin to penetrate into the body of the crumbs and an immune response is formed, so the body begins to develop its own immunoglobulin A, which is responsible for local immunity. But he does not have a "memory" for viruses, so vaccinations that are made during this period, necessarily later, are repeated. It is very important to preserve breastfeeding.

Enhance protection will also help water procedures. From 3 months of the baby after a minute bath in the water about 35 degrees, pour water, the temperature of which is a couple of degrees lower. You can also gently wipe the crumbs after taking a bath mitten, dipped in water at a temperature of 32-34 degrees. Within a few minutes, you can wipe the baby's hands from the fingers to the shoulder and legs from the toes to the knee, then wipe dry. The temperature of water should be lowered every week by about one degree, until it reaches 28 degrees.

Children's surprises
2-3 years - the third critical period, timeActive development of acquired immunity. Contacts with the outside world are becoming more extensive, many children begin to attend nursery or kindergarten and often get sick. Usually this period of adaptation is delayed for six months or a year. The cause of repeated colds can be stress, unwillingness of a child to visit a nursery or a garden. But you do not need to give up preschool. Crumbs that do not go to the garden or nursery, of course, do not get sick so often. But as soon as they go to the first class, they begin to get sick much more and stronger. Their "organized" peers at this age have time to "get to know" with many viruses to catch a cold less often.

Usually at this age, the "kindergarten" diseaseLast a long time and pass one into another. This does not mean that they have weak immunity. Simply toddlers come into contact with a large number of pathogens, their mucous membranes are vulnerable, since immunoglobulin A is produced in small quantities. The immune system, therefore, is actively trained: in a collision with "aliens" the body produces antibodies, which in the future help him to cope with diseases or not to allow their occurrence. To finally form, immunity requires up to 8-12 such "trainings" per year.

At this age it is better to do withoutImmunostimulating drugs. Their use can weaken the immunity of the child. In addition, immunostimulants have contraindications and side effects. Balanced for vitamins and trace elements diet, compliance with the regime of the day, physical activity and tempering procedures will have a much greater effect.

Also at this age due to active metabolismvarious pathogens with peers are marked by active growth of tonsils and lymph nodes. This link of innate immunity serves as the first line of defense against potential pathogens of various diseases. When they get an infection, they grow and become inflamed. Approximately at this time most of the revaccinations fall. They are aimed at maintaining the immunity, which was developed during previous vaccinations.

Almost adult
In 5-7 years (the fourth critical period) levelsimmunoglobulins class M and G are approaching the adult level, the number of T and B lymphocytes also becomes close to their number in an adult. Immunoglobulin A is still in short supply. Because of this, the diseases of the upper respiratory tract at this age can become chronic (chronic tonsillitis, chronic laryngitis) or frequently repeated. To avoid this, you need to carefully and completely cure them. Also in the autumn-winter period it is recommended to give the child multivitamins. For specific recommendations (the course of taking and names of vitamin complexes), you should consult a pediatrician. But before you assign immunostimulating drugs, you need to know which link of the immune system suffers and what exactly needs to be strengthened. Exact information about this is provided only by the developed immunogram. But most children are sick much less often and are more likely to cope with infections. The value of immunoglobulin E reaches a maximum, therefore the frequency of allergic reactions increases.
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