Upbringing and development of the child of the first year of life
- 1 month to 2.5-3 months (newborn period)
- From 3 to 9 months (infant period)
- From 9 to 12 months (older infancy)
For each period, leading trends in development are characteristic.
In 1-3 months there is a period of development of visual,Auditory, emotional reactions to the surrounding, and, in turn, allows you to establish contact with the child and fills his waking. The main task in this period for parents is to establish contact with the child through emotional expressive speech. The child needs to show bright toys, join in communication with him according to the situation: woke up, going to eat, walk. Each activity should have emotional-verbal accompaniment.
Child upbringing is 2.5-6 months. Motor coordination develops. During this period, the baby begins babbling. He can differentiate the sounds of close people: grandmother, mother, father; Turn over on one side, stomach and rest on legs.
Child development 6-10months. At 7 months the baby can crawl well, sit and sit on its own. At the same time, it is advisable to carry out expedient actions with objects, can stand up in a crib independently, hold on to the crossbar, step over the tree, understands the name of objects, actions of close people.
Upbringing of the child from 10-12 months. The kid is very inquisitive and needs to be taught to forbidden intonation. The child should understand the meaning of the word is impossible and the fulfillment of this prohibition must be unconditional. From 9 to 12 months it is necessary to learn the simplest actions with objects. It is necessary to enrich the color sensations.
To every child, big and small,It is necessary to observe the regime. Mode - a rational distribution in time and space, the sequence of satisfaction of the basic physiological needs of the organism: sleep, receptive, wakefulness. In organizing the holding of regime moments it is important to create the right conditions for sleeping children. The room in which the baby sleeps must be ventilated and the air temperature should not exceed 18 degrees. It is necessary to create conditions for washing children. This all allows you to form a child:
- Independence and some independence from an adult;
- Accumulates the experience of independent action, which contributes to the formation of self-esteem, self-esteem;
- Development and formation of skills to act with subjects. This is the foundation of the future culture of work, thrift;
- Nurture skills, food culture;
- Cultivated cultural and hygienic skills.
In turn, cultural and hygienic skillsProtect the health of the child, promote the education of a common culture. An educated attitude towards each other is brought up, which requires that business contacts arise when there are many situations.
After a year the child must be taught to washHands overeat. Let him try to eat a spoonful of thick food. After that, the child must pay attention to his dirty face, nose and himself to try to wipe it with a sachet.
It is necessary to start the education of the baby from the very birth. The child feels and understands everything, it is possible to miss the moment of accustoming him to the rules of culture. Raising children is a difficult task.