Causes of Childhood Autism
For a long time there was an opinion that the triadSymptoms of autism can be caused by one common cause for all, which can affect the cognitive, genetic and neuronal levels. Recently, however, researchers are increasingly focusing on the assumption that autism is a disorder of a complex species that is caused by a variety of causes that can often interact with each other at the same time.
Studies that were conducted with a view toDetermination of the causes of child autism, went in many directions. The first tests of children with autism did not give any evidence that their nervous system was damaged. At the same time, Dr. Kanner, who introduced the term "autism" into medicine, noted several similarities in parents of such children, such as rational approach to the upbringing of their child, high level of intelligence. As a result, in the middle of the last century a hypothesis was proposed that autism has a psychogenic nature (that is, it arises as a result of a psychological trauma). One of the most ardent advocates of this hypothesis was the psychotherapist from Austria, Dr. B. Bettelheim, who founded his own clinic for children in America. Pathology in the development of social connections with others, violations of activity in relation to the world, he associated with the fact that parents were coldly treated their child, suppressing him as a person. That is, according to this theory, the entire responsibility for the development of autism in the child was placed on the parents, which often became for them the cause of serious mental trauma.
Comparative studies, however, have shown thatChildren with autism survived no more than situations that could potentially hurt them than healthy children, and the parents of a child with autism were often far more committed and caring than other parents. Thus, the hypothesis of the psychogenic origin of this disease had to be forgotten.
Moreover, many modern researchersArgue that there have been many signs of inadequate central nervous system function in children suffering from autism. It is for this reason among modern authors that it is widely believed that early infantile autism has its own primary cause of pathology of a special kind, to which the central nervous system leads. There are many hypotheses about where this insufficiency comes from and where it is localized.
Now intensive researches are conducted,They are called upon to verify the main provisions of these hypotheses, but unambiguous conclusions have not yet been obtained. There are only data that autistic children often have symptoms of brain dysfunction, along with pathologies of biochemical metabolism. These diseases can be caused by a variety of causes, such as chromosomal abnormalities, genetic predisposition, congenital disorders. Also, the deficiency of the nervous system can arise as a result of damage to the central nervous system, which in turn is due to complicated birth or pregnancy, an early developed schizophrenic process or the consequences of neuroinfections.
American scientist E. Ornitz investigated more than 20 diverse pathogenic factors that can cause the onset of Kanner's syndrome. The emergence of autism can also result in a wide range of diseases, such as tuberous sclerosis or congenital rubella. Summarizing all of the above, most specialists today speak about the multiplicity of the reasons for the emergence (polytheology) of the syndrome of childhood early autism and how it manifests itself in various pathologies and its polynozology.