Treatment of childhood stuttering
Therapeutic means. They have been used to treat stuttering sinceAncient times by Hippocrates, Celsus, Aristotle, Galen, Avicenna in different forms and degrees. Therapeutic drugs alone are not sufficient to get rid of the child from stuttering, but are widely used as an addition to the basic methods of treatment.
Surgical method. This method of treating stuttering has been used since1 in. N. E. And continuing until the middle of the XIX century. However, in subsequent years there was an opinion that the surgical method is useless and at the same time dangerous in application (Bonn, Antill, Dionysus, Dieffenbach, Petit, Aeginsky, Fabricius, etc.). This method of treating stuttering appeared on the basis of the notion that stuttering is a consequence of pathological anatomy of the articulation organs or weak innervation of the muscles of the tongue.
Orthopedic drugs were ancillary in the treatment of stuttering.
Psychotherapeutic method. The psychotherapeutic effect became part of the practiceTreatment of stammering from the time when stuttering was looked upon as a neurotic disorder. Freschels, Netkachev, and others gave this method of treatment stuttering paramount importance. Stammering was considered, first of all, as mental suffering. In this regard, the means of influencing the stuttering child were chosen on the basis of their influences on his psyche.
Didactic methods. Their application is aimed at developing the rightSpeech in the child through a whole system of diverse and more complicated gradually speech exercises, which should cover both individual elements of speech, and all speech. Such techniques were used by Gutzman, Himiller, Itar, Dengardt, Kussmaul, Cohen, Lee, Andres.
Medical and educational measures. It is believed that the first system of therapeutic and pedagogical influence on a child suffering from stuttering was given in the recommendations of IA Sikorsky. (1889) and his disciple IK Khmelevsky. (1897).
So, Sikorsky I.A. In the treatment of childhood stuttering recommended:
- Gymnastics of speech (exercises for training of voice, breathing, articulation, different types of speech);
- Psychotherapeutic treatment of stuttering, which includes the creation of favorable conditions for the child, the impact on his mood, the gradual complication of speech classes, etc.);
- Dynamic and pharmaceutical treatment (motor exercises, physiotherapy, medicines).
Lately a lot of attention has been paid toPsychotherapeutic effects on the personality of a child suffering from stuttering, in the context of the whole range of methods of treatment. Based on the research of Russian physiologists Sechenov IM, Pavlova IP, as well as their followers, the specialists selected the best methods of eliminating stutter and defined a modern complex approach to the treatment of stuttering in children.
A complex approach. Stuttering is a complicated systemic disease. It arises for a number of reasons - biological, psychological and social.
A modern integrated approach to overcomingStuttering implies a therapeutic and pedagogical effect on various aspects of the psychophysical state of a child suffering from stuttering, using various means and efforts of specialists of different profiles. Medical and pedagogical activities include therapeutic procedures and drugs, physical therapy, psychotherapy, speech therapy, speech therapy, educational activities. Their goal is to strengthen and improve the nervous system and, in general, the entire body of the child; Getting rid of wrong attitude to speech defect, weakening and complete elimination of speech convulsions, concomitant breathing disorders and voice, speech and motor skills; Social adaptation of stuttering children. Today, the efforts of specialists are aimed at a deeper study of the individual psychological characteristics of stuttering children.