Physical development of a premature baby
In addition, during the first year of life of the babyImportant is the nature and significance of the disease, the frequency of the diseases. It is important to feed the child, adhere to the regime, whether it was hardening, massage, therapeutic gymnastics. It should be taken into account that in the first month the majority of children practically do not gain weight, this feature does not depend on the degree of prematurity of the child. Preterm children in the same period can, on the contrary, gain more weight in the weight. Such physical development of the premature baby is due, first of all, to the long period of adaptation to the conditions of existence, which for them are also new. In addition, a slight increase in the weight of a premature baby is associated with a greater loss of the original body weight. The initial weight in preterm infants will be restored approximately 3 weeks after birth, in the term infants the initial mass is restored 7-15 days after birth.
Usually premature babies by 3 years 2 timesIncrease the body weight, by 6 months the mass increases 3 times. In growth, premature infants every month add 2.5-5.5 cm, this growth rate lasts up to 6 months. After the growth rate begins to decline. Approximately 7-8 months. The growth increases by two centimeters, from 9 months. The growth increases monthly by 1.5 cm. The weight of the body of preterm infants before the age of one year increases on average by four to six times, the body weight of deeply premature babies is six to eight times. During this period of time the child grows to 27-38 cm, so a yearlong premature baby reaches on average 70-77 centimeters.
Preterm infants, especially the first monthsLife is marked by lethargy, a decrease in muscle tone, lack of mobility. Congenital reflexes are formed either poorly, or they are generally absent. There are cases when in a 2-3-month-old child the behavior acquires the opposite character. The child's muscle tone rises and he becomes physically active and active. Such a child is constantly in an excited state, it is difficult to put him to sleep, at night he often wakes up.
The health of preterm infants is weaker, the probability of developing infectious diseases is higher than that of full-term children. Premature babies are sick with acute respiratory viral infections, which occur with complications.
To increase the body's resistance,Correction of muscle tone, improvement of psychological state, and also to speed up psychomotor and physical development, doctors usually recommend parents to do gymnastics and massage with the child. Gymnastics and massage should not be done at bedtime, otherwise the child may become overexcited. These procedures are best performed in the afternoon and preferably at the same time. The procedures are performed 30 minutes prior to feeding or after eating after 1 hour. The child should be in a good mood and he should feel good.
Any procedure must pass so thatThe child was fun and interesting, under no circumstances do not force the child to do the exercises. Classes should take place in a well-ventilated room, but not in the cold (about 22-24 ° C). If the baby is sick, then it is necessary to postpone all activities until full recovery.
It is also advised to introduce passive gymnastic exercises that improve the child's coordination of movements, promote the development of motor skills.
3-4 months. - to the methods used, you can add child's turns to the left side, then to the right.
4-5 months. - The child must learn to stretch, and pick up toys.
5-6 months. - gently force the baby to crawl.
7-8 months. - Encourage the baby's attempts to stand and / or sit, but only if he keeps the backrest well.
9-10 months. - the child rises near the support.
11 months - trying to walk to keep the props.
12-13 months. - Teach the child to walk alone.