The speech of the child in the third year of life
A special role is played by speech for child developmentThe basic rules of behavior, because adults express their demands in words. In the third year of life, the word becomes the main regulator of child behavior. His actions gradually begin to obey orders or prohibitions, expressed verbally. Mastering the requirements and rules expressed in separate words is of great importance for the child's development of self-control, will and perseverance.
The baby, using speech, comes into contact more easilyWith the rest of the children, plays with them, which also contributes to its harmonious development. No less important for the baby are verbal contacts with adults. The child should interact with them, participate in joint games in which the adult is an equal to him a partner in the game.
By the age of three, the number of words in active speechCan reach one thousand. Such a growth of the dictionary is explained by the enrichment of the child's general life experience, the complication of his daily activities, communication with the surrounding people. In oral speech, nouns predominate at first (60%), but gradually more verbs (27%), adjectives (12%), even pronouns and prepositions even enter into speech.
Vocabulary of a child as the development of speech is not onlyIs enriched, but also becomes more systematized. By the age of three he began to learn the word-concepts (dishes, clothes, furniture, etc.) in passive speech. Despite the fact that children are already free to orient themselves in everyday things, their surroundings, they sometimes confuse the names of similar objects (cup-mug). Also, children can use the same word for several subjects: the word "cap" is to name both a cap, and a cap, and a hat.
In the third year of life, a child's communicative speech is onlyBegins its formation. The kid first builds simple short sentences, and later starts using compound and complex sentences. Only by the end of the third year does the child begin to master the situational coherent speech. He can already tell about what they saw, that he found out what he wanted. The kid after two years is already able to understand simple stories, fairy tales, answer questions about their content. Most children can not give a coherent paraphrase. At this age, children listen to the same poems, fairy tales and memorize texts after repeated listening, as if reading them from the book. At the same time, children can not convey the text of the story in their own words. A three-year-old can already solve simple riddles, even if their text contains information in the form of hints, tips, onomatopoeia.
The pronunciation of the speech
In the third year of life the sound of a childIs improving. Some children already sound all the sounds by the year, but most of them replace the hissing W, H, H, H with whistling and T sound. "The number of sounds correctly pronounced by the child is in close connection with the stock of constantly used words." A child with a vast supply of words constantly Exercises in pronouncing sounds, he improves his articulatory apparatus, develops his phonemic hearing, and sounds as a result of such training come to normal.
In this period, the main featureSound - a large number of sound mixes. Sounds that appear instead of substitutes take their place not in all words and not immediately. Separate sounds are acquired a month, others - more than three months. During this time, the sound then accidentally slips in the word, then gives way to its substitute.
Another feature specific to childrenThis age, is an interest in sound forms of words - "rhyming". This is the repeated repetition of the same words, and the manipulation of words by changing them, and creating meaningless rhymes and rhythms. Such actions with words are a powerful stimulus for mastering the sound form of words, for improving the phonemic perception, and for strengthening the articulatory apparatus. The child trains himself in uttering sounds and using meaningful speech.
Without the ability to distinguish by ear all sounds,The child will not be able to master pure sound. By the second year of life the child can hear all the phonemes of the language in a foreign speech, he perfectly observes other people's mistakes in the pronunciation of words, but he does not yet make mistakes in his speech. An important achievement by the end of the third year in the development of a phonemic hearing should be the recognition of one's own mistakes in uttering sounds. Only in this way will the child be able to master the correct pronunciation of sounds.
Results of development in the third year of life
- An important difference in the speech of a three-year-old child is the almost complete absence of errors in grammatical speech.
- In the sentence, the connection of words is established with the help of prepositions and endings, the child uses alliances, uses all the basic parts of speech.
- The general vocabulary of a three-year-old child is characterized not only by everyday words. He also begins to use words of value and generalization.
- Sound reproduction of the child in the third year of lifeStill does not correspond to the norm. Speech still lacks sibilant and sonorous sounds. Words with a complex structure of syllables and with the concurrence of consonants are often uttered in a distorted manner.
- If parents form a positive childAttitude to the book, he will love to listen to familiar fairy tales and poems several times. Hon will better memorize the texts and reproduce them verbatim. The child can not yet give a free retelling heard in his own words.