Psychological development of children under one year old
The child already interacts withParents and people nearby. From about three months ago, he is beginning to show an increased interest in the world around him. During the first year of life, if there is no pathology and no deviations in development, the baby learns a lot. For example, he learns to hold his head, crawl, be in an upright position, make his first steps. The psychological state of the child also undergoes changes. His character, habits, reflexes and stable personal connections are formed. This happens in stages, from month to month. It is important for parents to know these stages and be prepared for certain difficulties arising on each of them.
Stages of psychological development of children under one year
Newborn The baby sleeps most of the time. The longest period of active wakefulness at this stage can be up to 30 minutes. At this age the child is able to react to sound, light and pain. He already has short-term visual and auditory concentration. The baby has well expressed sucking, yawning, swallowing and other reflexes.
At the age of one month The baby becomes more and more active. The total time of wakefulness gradually increases to an hour. The child can already quite well fix his sight. He follows the subject, but while he can not turn his head behind the moving object. Physically, he can do it, but he does not yet build psychological connections between the object and its movement. At this stage, the baby is already beginning to try to pass on to the adults their emotions. He does this, mainly with the help of shouting, mimicking or groaning.
If you saw on your face Two-month Baby smile - know that this is not easyChance. By this age he is able to smile consciously. Moreover, he can already perfectly follow the toy. Sometimes the child begins to turn his head, as soon as an interesting subject for him is taken away. It is during this period that your son or daughter begins to build their first conscious dialogues: in response to your treatment, the kid revives and gushes.
Child In three months Already clearly recognizes his mother. He easily distinguishes it from standing next to people, can adequately respond to the appeal to him. One of the main achievements of this age is the development of independence. The kid can already play with a toy suspended above him or consider his own hands. This indicates the development of a clear desire for independence, to the assertion of one's personality. The child laughs, watching the subject, actively turning his head.
In four months The child looks with interest for a long timeAn interesting fixed object, firmly holds a rattle in his hands, finds his mother's eyes and closely watches her, giggles laughingly. A toddler at this age can already be left for a while in the crib alone during the waking period. He can play independently for a long period of time. The time of active knowledge of the world around us is two hours.
At the five-month "Speech" is distinguished by a special melodiousness andMusicality. The child already clearly demonstrates a variety of emotions, distinguishes any intonations of the voice of the parents and for a long time examines their hands and surrounding objects. The main achievement is that the baby begins to recognize himself in the mirror. Moreover, often his own reflection makes him smile. Do not think that this is accidental - the child understands perfectly that it is he who is in the mirror. In the future, such self-awareness will only be strengthened.
Name it by name Half-yearly Baby, and he immediately responds. Moreover, it is during this period that he begins to publish not just individual sounds, but connected syllables. Talk more often with the baby. You will be surprised with what interest he will listen to what you said. If the child is breastfeeding, then at the right time he will clearly understand that he wants a breast, pointing to it. At this time, nursing infants are taught to drink from a children's cup. The "artificers" who received juices, water and tea from a bottle, this skill is late.
To 7-8 months The baby begins to recognize the individual objects. He learns a complex emotional babble, directly conveying his mood. There are so-called "pseudo-words" with which the child expresses his attitude to what is happening. His games are already more conscious and controllable. The kid does not just wag his rattle, but plays with it, interacts and enjoys the process. Now the child discerns people, knowing the concepts of "one's own" and "another's".
At the age of 9-10 months Child can already perform simple commands, andSometimes already quite consciously, if necessary, calling his mother. For a baby it's not a problem to show where the doll has a nose, eyes, mouth, pens, etc. A kid at ten months will accurately give you exactly the thing you ask him, and even be able to perform a simple command (clapping , Give the toy to the daddy, etc.) This is the psychology of interaction - the initial stage on the way to the development of communicative skills. Outgoing person, he will wave after "while", and this is communication. It is important that the child learns to communicate now, mastering the rules and, if necessary, reconciling with them.
Psychological development of the baby Closer to the year Finds quite adult outlines. The child already perfectly understands the word "impossible". Moreover, he perceives adequately the speech addressed to him. This period for the baby is very important, because his own speech begins to form. In some children the development of up to a year goes more quickly, in others - a little slower. It is very individual and depends on many factors: the conditions in which a baby develops, heredity, and his natural abilities.
At this age the child is already beginning to expressTheir consent and disagreement. He already understands what he wants, and what he does not like. The first psychological conflicts begin. The child tries to assert his preferences, objects, and is capricious. Although the long-term relationship between emotions and actions One-year-old child Yet does not build. He still can not do anything to you "for evil." Simply, he tries to maintain maximum comfort for himself.