How to organize communication with a non-speaking child in the family?
This pathology has not yet been fully explored, which gives many opportunities for further research, disclosure and description of correction disorders.
The very concept of "alalia" has been repeatedly exposedrethinking and transformation. The dispute between scientists is still ongoing, on issues of terminology, methods of corrective action, as well as classification, under alalia. Today, the majority of alalia understand the absence of either underdevelopment of speech as a consequence organic lesion of certain speech zones of the cerebral cortex. Usually such a disease develops even in the prenatal or early period of the child's development.
What is Alalia?
Alalia is systemic hypoplasia of speech, at which violate the phonetic-phonemic aspect, as well as the lexico-grammatical system.
Usually, when such a disease occursthe process of speech formation, as a rule, will occur in conditions of the pathological state of the central nervous system. According to its manifestations and the severity of linguistic underdevelopment, alalia is rather heterogeneous.
Usually, according to the criteria of form differentiationthe disease is divided into several classes. The most common is the topological classification of alalia. This classification is based on the criteria for taking into account the localization of the brain lesion.
Separate such classes of alalia:
Motor alalia - (Broca's center) is manifested by disturbances in the central section of the speech motor analyzer;
Sensory alalia - is accompanied by a lesion of the central part of the recursion analyzer, and also manifests itself as a lesion of the posterior third of the superior temporal gyrus;
Sensomotor alalia - usually combines the symptoms of the two above-mentioned species of alalia.
Allaia, like any disease, is subject to treatment and prevention. The treatment of alalia is the correction of emerging defects with the help of a complex effect on the cause.
The integrated approach in alalia is aimed atthe formation of all functions of speech, and is a long and time-consuming process. As a result of the correction, one can see the impact on speech formation, improvement of cognitive activity, development of intelligence, development of motor skills, the formation of elementary mathematical representations, the formation of an emotional-volitional sphere, and so on. Corrective work is aimed primarily at overcoming motor alalia, creating mechanisms of speech activity. Work is being done on speech and the personality as a whole, the patterns of development of the speech function and the laws of the structure of the language system are taken into account. Thus, when performing all the necessary actions: a motive is formed; its lexical decomposition is performed; there is a selection of lexical and grammatical means; grammatical structuring is realized; internal programming of the utterance; communicative intention is formed;
Enrichment of speech practice develop, startingwith the ability to consciously use knowledge, modeling various situations, mastery is developed. an important and effective direction is the development of arbitrary actions combined with speech. Usually this method is used for the primary signs of the disease.
How to communicate with the child?
Complexity of speech, contributes to more inhibiteddevelopment of the child, because of the impossibility of constant communication, and all processes directly related to speech. Then the parents have a question, how to organize communication with a non-speaking child in the family? The main rule for parents is timely corrective actions, as well as constant communication with the child. For this, one fact must be taken into account. Human life is subordinated to a certain rhythm, as evidenced by the rhythm of heartbeat, ejection of nerve impulses, the change of seasons, parts of the day, and so on. Therefore, when dealing with a non-speaking child, use this quality. When talking, stick to a stable rhythmic pattern. The best option for communication will be songs and poems. Moreover, children's poems and songs can be selected for any occasion. Another recommendation in favor of the use of verse communication is the fact that as children have a purely muscular sense of verse, and therefore this communication technique will be very effective. Also, when communicating, use synchronization of speech and movements of large joints. It is best to use the movement of the elbow and shoulder joints. Also in the course of communication, you must use the techniques developed in the form of game assignments. To identify the wishes and needs of the child, also use gestures, while always pronouncing words, names, your actions. Pronounce everything, clearly stressing each syllable. For example, when giving food, come up with a small rhyme, or say "ku-sha-ti" clearly, while applying the appropriate gesture enclosed by a specialist, or invented by you, taking into account the child's capabilities.
Do not force the child to repeat, orTo scold, if at it something is impossible. Be calm and tolerant, do not forget to praise your baby for success. Remember that only in combination with treatment, work with specialists and your direct work with the child you can achieve the desired result. Do not reboot the child with communication, let him rest, when he wants something, let him try to tell about it. Even if the child is naughty, first calm him, try to guess his desire and ask him to show, or say (sound) what he wants. Thus, by organizing communication with a non-speaking child, you will create a desire-request-result association in the child.