How to explain to children why birds fly
If the answer to the question posed by the child causes you difficulty, together look or read a book on an interesting topic, this will cause the child's interest in further study of something.
Watching the wildlife, the child oftenwonders why birds fly and do not fall, why man can not fly? I wonder how to explain to children why birds fly? Well, if you have a good encyclopedia about the living world or birds, so that the child can answer his question visually, showing illustrations and pictures. Approach the choice of books seriously and carefully. To familiarize the child with the world around, pick up books with well-drawn drawings and vivid illustrations.
There are more than 9,800 species of birds andalmost all of them, with the exception of some, can fly. First of all, tell the child about the devices for the flight that the birds have. Almost all birds have wings. The wing of the bird has not a flat surface, but a curved surface, the nature has specially arranged it so that the wing creates a force opposing another force - the force of gravity. This means that the airflow surrounding the wing must travel a longer path along the upper part of the wing than the lower one. Since the lower part of the wing is concave, the air flow above the wing will move faster than under it. This creates a different pressure over the wing and under it, thereby creating a force directed upward, which also counteracts the force of gravity. The next device for flying is the wings. A feather is a horny formation of the skin, very light and airy.
Thanks to feathers, the body surface of the bird remainssmooth and in-flight air it easily flows around. Also, with the help of feathers, the bird can regulate and change the direction of flight. Feathers easily retain heat, create a layer that protects the bird from harmful environmental factors, from cold, dampness, wind and overheating. In addition, the bird can fly because of the structure of the skeleton. The bones in the bird's skeleton are fused together, making it very rigid. If in the skeleton of mammals the bones of the spine consist of separate vertebrae, forming a chain, then in the skeleton of the bird they firmly fuse with each other. Bones of birds are thin and porous, due to what the skeleton of birds is very light. When the bird inhales air, it quickly enters through the bronchioles into the lungs, and from there into the air sacs. Exhaling air, returns from air bags through the lungs, where gas exchange is re-formed. This double breath supplies the body with oxygen, which is very important in flight. The bird has a large heart, and this allows the blood to circulate faster in the vessels of the bird. A large amount of red blood cells in the blood of the bird allows for more oxygen transfer, which is necessary during the flight. The heart of the bird shrinks at a frequency of 1000 beats per minute, in addition, the birds have high blood pressure, about 180 mm. gt; Art. , for comparison, the human pressure is only 100-120. Due to the highly developed respiratory and circulatory systems, the bird has a high body temperature and a fast metabolism. To get more energy, the bird consumes a lot of food, explain to the child why it is important to feed the birds in winter, when natural food becomes scarce and her search is hampered. Even in the nervous system of birds there is a powerful cerebellum, responsible for the coordination of movements, which is necessary in flight.
But not all birds fly. For example, penguins. This is the only bird that can not fly, but is able to swim. They live mostly in water and their wings have become like fins, with the help of which they swim. The largest bird in the world also can not fly. It's an ostrich, it's too heavy for a flight.
You need huge wings to climb inair with such a body mass. In general, a bird can fly if the mass of its body is not more than 20 kg. Some birds fled before flight, for example bustards and chickens. Tell the children about the record birds. For example, a mountain goose is able to fly through the mountains of the Himalayas at an altitude of 10 kilometers, these birds have been seen even over the highest mountain in the world - Everest. The owner of the highest flight was the bar of Ruppel, once he collided with a plane at an altitude of about 11271 meters. The polar tern is able to cover a distance of 40,000 kilometers in one direction, and for all its life flies, 2.5 million kilometers. The long-living bird is a large yellow-flecked cockatoos. The duration of his life is more than 80 years. The child will be interested to know that the birds have their own holiday - April 1. This day is celebrated the International Day of Birds. It is from the beginning of April that birds begin to return from their wintering grounds. Explain to the children that birds that fly to warmer regions during the cold seasons, know and remember the direction in which they need to fly, besides they are able to choose the best route. If the wind is passing, birds fly very high, where the wind blows even more. And if the wind is oncoming, birds tend to fly low, using trees and large buildings as overlapping with the wind. Joint walks with the child - a good opportunity to observe and expand the child's knowledge about the world around him, moreover, watching, the child himself can find the answer and explanation of many things interesting him.
When answering questions from children, do not seek to dotheir complete and exhaustive. The answers should be, first of all, brief, clear and accessible, contain the certainty of the answer. Explain it to children using simple understandable words. Let your answer prompt the child to new observations and reflections, and in your answers cultivate tactfulness and sensitivity in him. Do not treat the child's questions with respect, do not try to "walk away" from the answer, because communicating with the child on various topics, explaining to him incomprehensible things, develops the curiosity and horizons of the child.