Symptoms and treatment of neonatal sepsis
Pathogens of sepsis
The causative agents of this disease areA variety of conditionally pathogenic and pathogenic microorganisms: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella, pneumococcus, streptococcus, staphylococcus and a number of other microorganisms dangerous to humans.
Damage to the skin during childbirth, prolongedAnhydrous period, the presence of purulent and inflammatory processes in the mother - this can all be a hotbed of infection of a newborn child. Viruses and bacteria can penetrate into the body through the gastrointestinal tract, mucous membranes, airways, through the umbilical vessels or through the umbilical wound, skin damage. If the origin of sepsis is intrauterine, it means that the focus of infection is in the mother's body: the placenta, or another organ.
Forms of the disease
The main clinical forms of sepsis are three:
- Early sepsis,
- Late sepsis,
- Intrahospital sepsis.
Sepsis early Reveal during the first 5-7 days of life,They are infected with children most often perinatally (in the womb). In the body of the child, pathogenic microorganisms enter through the placenta (transplacental). It is possible to develop early sepsis and by swallowing amniotic fluid, as well as the rupture of the amniotic membrane and the penetration of pathogenic microflora from the vagina into it. Infection is also possible at the time the baby passes through the birth canal, especially if there are foci of inflammation.
Late Sepsis Revealed after 2-3 weeks after birth, most often infection with the microflora of the mother's vagina during the passage of the baby's birth canal.
Intra-hospital sepsis Causes pathogenic microflora, occurs inMaternity hospitals and hospitals, the causative agents of this type of sepsis are often gram-negative sticks (including Proteus, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, Serratia), staphylococcus (especially Staphylococcus epidermidis) and fungi. The mucous membranes of the newborn are easily vulnerable, the immune system is still too weak for such an active effect of pathogenic microorganisms, thereby significantly increasing the risk of sepsis.
Symptoms of sepsis
Sepsis is manifested through the following symptoms:
- Poor healing of the umbilical wound ("wetting" navel),
- Cyanosis of the nasolabial triangle,
- A significant drop in body weight,
- Increased body temperature,
- Grayish skin tone,
- Frequent regurgitation,
- Giving up breast,
- Decreased appetite.
Seizures can occur in two forms: Septicemia (no expressed foci of infection, general intoxication of the body) and septicopyemia (there are clearly pronounced inflammatory foci: osteomyelitis, meningitis, pneumonia, abscess, phlegmon, etc.).
Stages of sepsis
There are lightning sepsis, it occurs onThe first week of life, is accompanied by a septic shock, mainly ends in a fatal outcome. Duration of acute stage of sepsis from 4 to 8 weeks, prolonged stage - more than 2-3 months (occurs most often in newborns with immunodeficiency).
Treatment of sepsis
Infected children are hospitalized inMandatory in specialized departments of neonatal pathology. They are treated with antibacterial drugs with a wide spectrum of action: lincomycin hydrochloride, gentamicin sulphate, ampiox, stringin, ampicillin sodium, semi-synthetic penicillin, etc. Antibiotics are used more often intramuscularly, and in the form of intravenous injections - with adverse sepsis and threatened conditions.
Usually the course of antibiotics lasts 7-14 days. If the course of the disease is prolonged, as well as prolonged and undulating, repeated courses or several courses of antibiotics are required. And repetition should be avoided, different antibiotics are prescribed for each course.
Continue treatment until a sustained therapeutic effect is achieved.
Prevention of disease
Since sepsis is a serious disease,Leading in most cases to death, then carry out a number of preventive measures. These include: observation by specialists during pregnancy, timely diagnosis and detection of infections and diseases in a pregnant woman.