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Baby skin infections

Scarlet fever

Scarlet fever is an infectious disease thatCause streptococcus bacteria. Symptoms include fever, tonsillitis, swollen cervical glands, the appearance of scaly spots on the skin. Scarlet fever is common in children aged 2-10 years, usually outbreaks are observed in winter or spring. Approximately one case out of twenty in children with a sore throat and fever is detected scarlet fever. The incubation period is short (usually 1-2 days). Spots appear 1-2 days after the onset of the disease, most often on the neck and chest, then spread throughout. Diseases accompanied by skin rash may have varying degrees of severity, depending on the individual characteristics, but usually they do not cause dangerous complications and are well susceptible Treatment. Stains persist for about a week, after their disappearance, the skin in the groin and at the tips of the fingers and toes can peel off. Scarlet fever is treated, like throat infections, with antibiotics that kill bacteria, as well as rest, plentiful drink, anesthetics and antipyretic drugs. Without antibiotics scarlet fever, like tonsillitis, can go into ear infections, sinusitis, inflammation of the cervical lymph glands (lymphadenitis), suppuration of the tonsils. The most dangerous complications are rheumatism and kidney damage (glomerulonephritis) or heart (rheumatic cardiopathy). The most effective measure of prevention is vaccination.

Rubella

Rubella is an acute infectious viral infection, forWhich is typically the appearance of spots or rashes on the skin and swelling of the cervical glands. Most often occurs in childhood. If an adult is ill, rubella in pregnant women sometimes leads to the death of an unborn baby. The incubation period is 10-23 days, infection occurs 1 -2 days before the onset of the rash, the infection persists for another 6-7 days after its disappearance. Rubella passes almost asymptomatically or is accompanied by a slight periodic increase in temperature. A pinkish rash (it can have a different appearance) first appears on the face and chest and spreads around the body in about 24 hours. The rash usually disappears after 1-5 days. In addition, swollen glands, sometimes quite painful. There is no effective rubella treatment. If it is accompanied by fever and discomfort, it is recommended to take medications to relieve these symptoms. The vaccine against measles, rubella and mumps (MMR) guarantees protection against rubella for life. It is important to understand that the vaccine protects both the disease and its transmission, therefore, protects future children.

Measles

Measles is an infectious disease that causesRepresentatives of the family paramyxovirus. Measles is very contagious, transmitted by direct contact with the carrier or by air (for example, by sneezing). Usually, measles occurs in children aged 1 -4 years, but after massive vaccinations, outbreaks became rare. The incubation period is about 10 days, the peak of infection occurs on 4-5 days, even before the first signs of the disease appear. Usually measles lasts 10 days from the appearance of the first symptoms. Having survived measles, the child acquires immunity to her for life. Initially there is fever, lethargy, catarrhal phenomena, hypersensitivity to light, conjunctivitis, dry cough. On the face and neck there is a rash that begins to spread all over the body and covers it in less than 2 days. At this stage, the child is likely to have a high temperature - up to 40 C, in some cases - abdominal pain, diarrhea and even vomiting. The most common complications of measles, especially in infants, are middle ear infections and respiratory diseases such as pneumonia. Measles rarely causes neurologic disorders. With modern vaccination programs, measles outbreaks are rare, with infection recommended in the first place rest and drugs that lower the temperature and relieve cough.

Chickenpox

This infectious disease causes a virusVaricella zoster (VZV), which is the cause of the appearance of herpes zoster (lichen) in people over 65 years of age. Of all the diseases accompanied by a skin rash, chickenpox is considered the most common. The virus of chicken pox is most often found in children 2-8 years, from January to May. Adults can only become infected if they have not had a childhood illness. The incubation period passes asymptomatically, for about 2 weeks. It is followed by a sudden increase in temperature and lethargy, on the body there are itchy spots that continue to spread to the face and limbs for another 3-4 days. Then the spots turn into bubbles. As the disease progresses, the bubbles dry up, in their place, the scabs are formed, which gradually disappear. Chicken pox is usually transmitted by direct contact with the vesicles, in the stage before formation of the scab, since the fluid contained in them has a high concentration of the virus. The disease can also be transmitted through the air, along with the secretions of the respiratory system of the carriers of the infection. The peak of infection is observed for 1 -2 days before the appearance of the vesicles and lasts 5 days after its onset.

The most frequent complications of chicken pox are secondaryInfections at the site of the vesicles, usually caused by the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus pyogenes. In the liver, sometimes ulcerative lesions caused by the varicella-zoster virus itself, and although they rarely give symptoms, nevertheless, may have neurological consequences. The varicella virus also causes pneumonia in adults. In immunosuppression or treatment with immunosuppressant drugs (chemotherapy, corticosteroids), the risk of severe varicella zoster with pneumonia and other complications is particularly high. Serious complications in children are rare. The main treatment is the easing of the itch caused by the blisters, and in some cases the use of acyclovir, a drug against the varicella virus.

Infectious erythema

Infectious erythema, or megaloeritis,Accompanied by a characteristic rash on the chest and hands and a strong reddening of the cheeks. It was not for nothing that this disease was called "a slap in the face." Infectious erythema is caused by parvovirus. Before the appearance of a rash, catarrhal phenomena or pharyngitis can occur, as well as a slight increase in temperature. The rash is observed in periods of several weeks or even months, sometimes enhanced by sun or heat. In adults, erythema is accompanied by a burning sensation on the face, joint pain, even arthritis symptoms. Disease during pregnancy does not cause abnormalities in the fetus, but increases the risk of miscarriage.

Children's roseola

Rosaola (exanthem subitum), also known asCalled the "sixth disease", is caused by the herpesvirus of the sixth type, it is characterized by high fever and skin rash. Roseola is affected by about 30% of infants aged 4-24 months, it is found in older children, but quite rarely. The duration of the incubation period is 5-15 days. The disease is easily diagnosed by high temperature and rash. Heat lasts 3-4 days, and when it falls off, a pinkish rash appears - first on the chest, then on the face, stomach and to a lesser extent on the limbs. Roseola does not give complications, sometimes it is diagnosed retrospectively, after the appearance of the rash. This means that it can be confused with pharyngitis or ear infection due to temperature in combination with sore throat or in the ear. Now we know what kind of childhood skin infections are.

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