Rubella in children: symptoms, treatment
Approximately 25% of cases are not accompanied by an infectionNo symptoms and remains unnoticed. For most children, this infection is clinically insignificant. The greatest danger rubella is for pregnant women, because the virus through the placenta can infect the fetus and cause developmental anomalies. Rubella in children: symptoms, treatment - the subject of the article.
Spread of the disease
The rubella virus is ubiquitous. In developed countries, outbreaks are usually observed in winter or spring. Now, thanks to vaccination, rubella is rare. When coughing or sneezing, the virus is released into the environment, spreading with droplets of pus or saliva. When these particles get into the mucous membranes, infection occurs. In some cases, the infected child looks perfectly healthy and does not have any obvious symptoms of the disease.
The incubation period
From the moment the virus enters the body toThe appearance of symptoms takes 2-3 weeks. Ill children complain of poor health, they have moderate fever, runny nose, conjunctivitis, cough and an increase in lymph nodes. As the disease develops, the lymph nodes swell and become painful, at the peak of the disease there is a rash. A pink-red rash appears on the face and quickly spreads to the body, arms and legs. The rash, which usually does not cause any discomfort to children, lasts up to three days. The child at this time there is a moderate increase in temperature (usually about 38 "C or lower), fever and an increase in lymph nodes.
Occasionally, rubella leads to complications:
- Arthritis. Usually affects adolescent females. This complication increases the risk of subsequent rheumatoid arthritis.
- Encephalitis (inflammation of the brain). This complication is observed in 1 out of 6 thousand cases. A child with encephalitis is apathetic or, on the contrary, overly excited. Possible the development of coma. Unlike measles encephalitis, encephalitis in rubella is not fatal, and the overwhelming majority of the diseased get better without neurological consequences.
- The remaining complications are thrombocytopenia and myocarditis.
- Syndrome of congenital rubella - seriousA disease accompanied by low birth weight, developmental delay, blindness, deafness and heart defects. The later during pregnancy the mother is infected, the lower the risk that the baby will have anomalies.
- The reason why doctors pay so much attention to rubella is that infection of a pregnant woman with this virus can lead to the development of congenital anomalies in her unborn child.
The three main groups of congenital anomalies associated with rubella infection are:
- Cataract - can cause a decrease in vision or even blindness.
- Heart defects are, first of all, a narrowing of the pulmonary artery and an uncontrolled arterial duct.
- Low birth weight.
Congenital rubella is also often accompanied by a decrease in hearing.
Risk to the fetus
The greatest risk to the fetus isInfection of the mother before the 8th week of pregnancy, especially in the first month. Approximately half of such cases result in congenital anomalies of development. After this period, the risk of infection of the fetus and rubella-related abnormalities is somewhat reduced.
If a pregnant woman is infected,As soon as possible to check the state of her immunity. If it is known that it has been immunized or blood tests confirm immunity, you can calm the patient: the risk of developing congenital rubella in her unborn child is absent. If a woman has not been immunized and a blood test confirms the infection, the woman should be properly counseled and informed about the degree of risk to the unborn child. In some countries, an unimmunized pregnant woman with a confirmed infection at an early stage may be recommended abortion. Injections of immunoglobulins used to block excess viral particles in the blood are not recommended in pregnancy. The fact that they are able to prevent the disease or reduce its severity for the mother, but not the fact that they will warn congenital rubella in an infected child. Immunization against rubella in most developed countries began in the 70s of last century. Then the vaccine was intended for schoolgirls and adult women, sensitive to this infection. Currently, the rubella vaccine is part of the mandatory vaccination program for children. The rubella vaccine is a live vaccine, which has the ability to cause the disease artificially reduced to almost zero. Immunization is effective in more than 98% of cases and gives, as a rule, confirmed life-long immunity. According to the Russian vaccination calendar, vaccination is carried out at the age of 12 months and then at 6 years. Side effects are rare, in some cases within 7-10 days after vaccination, a rash with fever and an increase in lymph nodes is observed. Sexually mature women may have transient arthritis within 2-3 weeks after immunization. Contraindication to vaccination is a systemic immunodeficiency caused by a disease or drug treatment. HIV-positive children, however, can be safely vaccinated against rubella. Other contraindications are pregnancy and recent blood transfusions.