Period of life of a premature baby
Never again does the body develop so quickly,As in the first year of life. It is clear that such an extreme load, as well as some physiological immaturity of organs and systems, are the cause of the extreme vulnerability of the baby. This is especially evident in babies born before the term. To date, a premature baby is considered to be born from the 22nd to 37th week of pregnancy and weighs at least 500 g. There are several degrees of prematurity, the hallmark of which is the body weight.
In the period of life of a premature baby, severalOther proportions (the head is large enough relative to the size of the body) and there is practically no subcutaneous fatty tissue. The skin is dark red and thin, covered with a light fuzz. The springs on the skull are open.
Serious workload during the life of the premature babyThe baby on the shells of the brain during labor can lead to vasospasm, blood circulation disorders and even hemorrhage into the brain tissue. And even in successfully passed through this test of premature babies, there are problems with motor activity and muscle tone, some reflexes, or even sucking, are markedly reduced (or nonexistent). An equally important feature of such babies is the low ability to thermoregulate and maintain their own body temperature. A premature baby is equally easily overcooled and overheated, as it is difficult to produce heat and at first can not give it away with sweat (the sweat glands practically do not work). All this explains the special importance of maintaining a constant comfortable temperature in the room where the newborn is. Parents should not forget that strict adherence to the temperature regime should be followed even after discharge from the hospital.
The first year of the life period premature baby breathesVery often, and, the less he weighs, the more often his breath. Another problem is the absence of a special substance in the pulmonary tissue (surfactant), which ensures normal opening of the lungs and maintains "airiness." Sometimes the areas of unresolved lung tissue cause respiratory distress and create a favorable background for the development of infectious diseases. Therefore, at first, after returning home It is better to isolate the child from all but the family members. Communication with a large number of potential infection carriers increases the risk of contracting the baby.
The cardiovascular system
In the period of life of a premature baby oftenThere are various developmental abnormalities that impede the functioning of the heart. To early reveal such violations, all children are routinely sent to echocardiography (ultrasound of the heart). In addition, the cardiovascular system reacts sharply to any sharp stimuli (bright light, sudden movements, sudden changes in air temperature, etc.): the heart rate increases and blood pressure rises. In order to avoid overloading the weakened organism during the life of the premature baby, we must try to protect the child from such irritating factors.
Gastric juice and enzymes are formed fairlyLittle, and therefore, the ability to digest food and resistance to pathogens in the baby is much lower. The ingestion of even a small number of pathogenic microorganisms into the gastrointestinal tract in such children leads to the development of dysbacteriosis. The weakened peristalsis slows the progress of food and often causes indigestion, increased gas production and attacks of intestinal colic. And yet, the digestive system fulfills its main task - it processes and allows us to absorb mother's milk, which makes it possible, during the life of the premature baby, to receive adequate nutrition and develop.
During pregnancy, the bone system is formedOne of the first, because its only difference among toddlers is the lower level of mineralization of bones. This creates an increased risk of rickets. Even a small and short-term deficiency of vitamin D, phosphorus and calcium leads to the development of the disease. To avoid this, babies are prescribed calcium preparations. Another important problem is dysplasia of the baby's hip joints. This disorder occurs in children born on time, but premature babies have a greater predisposition. If you do not diagnose the problem in time, in the future it will inevitably cause the formation of subluxations, dislocations. To exclude this disease or to perform early treatment, the children are routinely given joint ultrasound and, when suspicions appear, the child is referred for radiography, which allows to determine the condition of the joints as accurately as possible.
When you go to home?
Newborns with low body weight, in earlyThe period of pregnancy (22-28 weeks), initially nursed in the department for preterm, and then transferred to rehabilitation in special children's hospitals, where they undergo a full examination and, if necessary, receive treatment. When the baby's condition improves, and the need for constant medical supervision disappears, he is also discharged home for outpatient supervision. But even the normalization of all vital signs of the newborn's body at the time of discharge does not yet mean the final restoration of the level of psychomotor development of the premature baby. In the first few years of life, babies born before the term are under observation. It includes periodic examinations of a neurologist, orthopedist, ophthalmologist and other specialists. Starting from the second week of the life of a premature baby, prophylaxis of rickets is carried out - vitamin D is added to the food, the child undergoes a course of massage and ultraviolet irradiation.
How we develop
If the premature baby is healthy, then its physical development is very rapid.
In the first weeks of the life period the premature baby gaining weight is rather weak, but by the 3rd-4th month this situation has been corrected.
Deep preterm infants by the 2nd-3rd month become 2 times heavier than at the moment of birth, for the year the same initial body weight increases 6-8 times.
In the period of life, premature babies with an average degree of prematurity double their weight a little later - by 3 months, and in a year they become 4-6 times heavier.
It also increases quite rapidly - for a yearBabies are added from 27 to 38 cm, and in the second year of life they are stretched monthly by at least 2-3 cm. Thus, the average growth of the premature infants by the end of the 12th month of life reaches 70-77 cm.
Head and chest dimensions
Gradually, the ratio of sizesCircumference of the head and thorax. Thus, the head circumference for the first half of the year increases by 6-15 cm, in the second half of the year it is much less - only 0.5-1 cm. In the first year of life this parameter increases by 15-19 cm and is 44-46 cm. , That in the first year of life the organism of the child (with due care and rehabilitation course) is incredibly fast developing, coping with the violations and problems that have arisen. Therefore, the main thing that parents should remember even a deeply premature baby - in no case should not be nervous and consider that your child will remain "not like everyone else." Individual strengthening sessions, developing games, massage and gymnastics will gradually do their thing and Will help the body of a premature newborn to work normally and in no way inferior to children born on time.
It's time to massage
A full recovery course and a period of lifePremature baby involves the active involvement of parents in this process. So, for example, it would be nice to learn the skills of classical children's massage. It is not particularly complicated, it is simply carried out taking into account the fact that the skin of premature babies in the first months is very thin and dry, and consequently, the massage movements should be as gentle as possible.
At first, it is better to limit yourself to strokes and only after a few weeks to move to more intensive methods.
The duration of the massage is also limited - in the first month no more than 5 minutes.
Stroking massage usingSpecial massage oil (sterile) can be started already from the end of the first month of life, it will help relax the muscles, which is especially important for children with hypertonia. Such massage techniques as grinding, kneading, effleurage and passive gymnastics (tilting, bending of hands and feet, etc.) are recommended not to begin earlier than 2-3 months in premature babies born with a weight of more than 2000 g and not earlier than 6 months In children weighing less than 1500 grams at birth.
Increase the resistance during the life of a premature baby and speed up its adaptation can also some soft methods of hardening - air baths, daily bathing and walking.
You can walk with the baby even in winter, provided that the crumb has already turned 2 months old (and deeply prematurely - at least 4-5 months), and the air temperature is not lower than -8-10 C.
When carrying out daily bathing the baby is extremelyIt is important to achieve the desired water temperature - 37 C, in the first 1-2 weeks to bathe the baby can only be in a well-heated room (with an additional heater).
It is also important during the life of a premature babyFrom ubiquitous pathogenic viruses and bacteria, since its immune system works even worse than thermoregulation. In the first 1-2 months, try to minimize contact with any relatives and friends who do not live in your apartment - they are all potential sources of infection.
First, to feed the baby is much more commonAnd in smaller portions. The crumb quickly gets tired and can not as actively suck as ordinary children. This problem can be solved by a longer stay of the baby at the breast or a shortening of the temporary break in feeding and feeding the baby with expressed milk. The main thing - remember: breast milk for the baby is now not only food, but also a miraculous "medicine" from the transferred psychological loads and physical disorders. Try as long as possible to breast-feed the baby.
Introduction of complementary foods
Must pass under medical supervision. As a rule, the first complementary foods are introduced not earlier than the baby will gain 6-7 kg of body weight and will eat at least 1000 ml of breast milk per day.
With the proper care and gentle care of your beloved mother, very soon all problems related to the period of life of the premature baby will remain only in your memories.