The child has a high fever - what to do?
The most common infection is fever. It develops in response to the action of pyrogens (from the Greek pyros - fire, pyretos - heat) - substances that increase body temperature. Pyrogens are divided into exogenous (external) and endogenous (internal). Bacteria, getting into the body, actively multiply and in the course of their vital activity different toxic substances are released. Some of them, which are external pyrogenes (ingested from the outside), can raise the temperature of the human body. Internal pyrogens are synthesized directly by the human body itself (leukocytes - blood cells, liver cells) in response to the introduction of foreign agents (bacteria, etc.).
In the brain along with the centersSalivation, respiratory and the like. Is the center of thermoregulation, "tuned" to the constant temperature of the internal organs. During illness, under the influence of internal and external pyrogens, thermoregulation "switches" to a new, higher temperature level.
High temperature in infectious diseasesIs a protective reaction of the body. Against this background, interferons, antibodies are synthesized, the ability of leukocytes to absorb and destroy foreign cells is stimulated, and the protective properties of the liver are activated. In most infections, the maximum temperature is set at 39.0-39.5 C. Due to the high temperature, microorganisms reduce their rate of reproduction, lose the ability to cause disease.
How correctly to measure temperature?
It is desirable that the baby has his own thermometer. Before each use, do not forget to wipe it with alcohol or warm water with soap.
To find out which indicators are the normFor your baby, measure his temperature when he is healthy and calm. It is advisable to measure it under the armpit and in the rectum. Do this in the morning, afternoon and evening.
If the baby is sick, measure the temperature threeOnce a day: morning, afternoon and evening. Every day at about the same time throughout the illness, especially it is important for children at risk. Record the measurement results. On the temperature diary the doctor can judge the course of the disease.
Do not measure the temperature under the blanket (ifThe newborn is strongly wrapped, its temperature can greatly increase). Do not measure the temperature if the baby is scared, crying, overly excited, let him calm down.
In which areas of the body can I measure the temperature?
The temperature can be measured in the armpit,In the inguinal fold and in the rectum, but not in the mouth. An exception is the measurement of temperature using a dummy thermometer. The rectal temperature (measured in the rectum) is approximately 0.5 degrees C higher than the oral (measured in the mouth) and a degree above the axillary or inguinal. For the same child this spread can be quite large. For example: normal temperature in the armpit or inguinal fold 36.6 degrees C; Normal temperature measured in the mouth, 37.1 degrees C; The normal temperature measured in the rectum is 37.6 degrees C.
The temperature is slightly higher than the generally accepted norm.Be an individual characteristic of the baby. Evening rates are usually higher than the morning ones by several hundredth degree. The temperature can rise due to overheating, emotional excitement, increased physical activity.
To measure temperature in a rectum it is convenient only to small children. Five-six-month-old kid deftly twists and will not let you do it. In addition, such a method can be unpleasant for the child.
To measure rectal temperature, the most suitable electronic thermometer, which allows you to do it very quickly: the result you get in just one minute.
So, take a thermometer (mercury preShake to a mark below 36 degrees C), lubricate its tip with a baby cream. Put the baby on the back, lift its legs (as if you were washing it), with the other hand, gently enter the thermometer into the anus approximately 2 cm. Fix the thermometer between two fingers (like a cigarette), and squeeze the baby's little fingers with other fingers.
In the groin and in the armpit, the temperature is measured with a glass mercury thermometer. You will receive the result in 10 minutes.
Shake the thermometer to below 36.0 degreesC. Dry the skin thoroughly in wrinkles, because moisture cools the mercury. To measure the temperature in the groin, lay the baby on the barrel. If you take measurements under your armpit, put him on your knees or take him in your arms and walk with him around the room. Place the thermometer so that the tip is completely in the skin fold, then with your hand, press the baby's handle (leg) to the body.
What temperature should be lowered?
If your child is sick and his temperature rises, be sure to call a doctor who will diagnose, prescribe a treatment and explain how to carry it out.
According to the recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO), initially healthy children should not reduce the temperature, which did not reach 39.0-39.5 degrees C.
The exception is children at risk,(At this age, all diseases are dangerous for their rapid development and a sharp deterioration in the general condition), children with neurological diseases, chronic diseases of the circulatory system, respiration, and hereditary metabolic diseases. Such babies already at a temperature of 37.1 degrees C should immediately give antipyretic drugs.
In addition, if a child has aReached 39.0 degrees C, the condition worsened, chills, muscle aches, pale skin, then antipyretic drugs should be taken immediately.
In addition, fever wears out and depletesThe possibility of the body and can be complicated by hyperthermic syndrome (a variant of fever, in which there is a violation of the functions of all organs and systems - convulsions, loss of consciousness, respiratory and cardiac disorders, etc.). This condition requires emergency medical intervention.
How to reduce the temperature?
1. The child should be kept cool. To warm a child with a high temperature with the help of blankets, warm clothes, a heater installed in the room is dangerous. These measures can lead to a thermal shock if the temperature rises to a dangerous level. Equip a sick child easily, so that excess heat will flow unhindered and keep the room at a temperature of 20-21 degrees C (if necessary, you can use an air conditioner or a fan without directing the air to the child).
2. Since the loss of fluid through the skin increases at high temperatures, the child must be given plenty of water. Older children should, as often as possible, offer diluted fruit juices and juicy fruits and water. Infants should be more often applied to the breast or give them water. Encourage frequent drinking a little (from a teaspoon), but do not rape the child. If a child refuses to take liquid for several hours a day, inform the doctor about it.
3. Wiping. Used as an adjuvant in conjunction with other measures to reduce temperature or in cases of absence of antipyretic drugs. Wiping is indicated only for those children who previously had no seizures, especially against the background of high fever, or no neurological diseases.
For wiping, use warm water,The temperature of which is close to body temperature. Cool or cold water or alcohol (once used for antipyretic wiping) can cause not a drop, but a rise in temperature and trigger a shiver that tells the "confused" body that it is necessary not to reduce, but increase the release of heat. In addition, inhale vapors of alcohol is harmful. The use of hot water also raises the body temperature and, like wrapping, can cause a heat stroke.
Before beginning the procedure, lower in a bowl or pelvisWith water three cloths. Put on the bed or on your knees an oilcloth, on top of it a terry towel, and on it - a child. Undress the baby and cover it with a sheet or diaper. Squeeze one of the rags so that no water drips from it, fold it and put it on the forehead. When drying cloth, it should be wet again.
Take the second rag and start carefullyWipe the child's skin moving from the periphery to the center. Pay special attention to the feet, legs, popliteal folds, inguinal folds, brushes, elbows, armpits, neck, face. Blood that has tasted to the surface of the skin with light friction, will be cooled by evaporation of water from the surface of the body. Continue to wipe the child, changing the cloths as necessary for at least twenty to thirty minutes (to lower body temperature it takes just that much time). If in the process of wiping the water in the basin cools, add a little warm water.
4. You can pre-freeze water in small bubbles and, having wrapped them with a diaper, apply to areas where there are large vessels: inguinal, axillary areas.
5. Use of antipyretics.
The drugs of choice for fever in children arePARACETAMOL and IBUPROFEN (trade names for these drugs can be very diverse). IBUPROFEN is recommended to be prescribed in cases when paracetamol is contraindicated or ineffective. A longer and more pronounced decrease in temperature after application of IBUPROPHEN was observed than after PARACETAMOLA.
AMIDOPYRIN, ANTIPIRIN, FENACETHINE are excluded from the list of antipyretic agents because of their toxicity.
Acetylsalicylic acid (ASPIRIN) is prohibited for use in children under 15 years of age.
Widespread use of METAMIZOLA (ANALGINA) inThe quality of antipyretic is not recommended by WHO, because He oppresses hematopoiesis, is capable of causing serious allergic reactions (anaphylactic shock). Possible long-term loss of consciousness with a decrease in temperature to 35.0-34.5 degrees C. The appointment of METAMIZOLA (ANALGINA) is possible only in cases of intolerance of drugs of choice or, if necessary, intramuscular injection, which should be done only by a doctor.
When choosing the form of a medicine (liquid medicine,Syrup, chewable tablets, suppositories) it should be taken into account that the preparations in solution or syrup act after 20-30 minutes, in candles - after 30-45 minutes, but their effect is longer. Candles can be used in situations where the child has vomiting when taking a liquid or refuses to drink a medicine. Candles should be used after defecation of the child, they are conveniently administered at night.
For medicines in the form of sweet syrups orChewing tablets may be allergic because of flavorings and other additives. The active substances themselves can also cause an allergic reaction, so with the first techniques you need to be especially careful.
If you give your child medicines, especiallyRelated to the dosage at certain ages, you should carefully study the instructions so as not to exceed the recommended dose. It should be borne in mind that a doctor can change the dosage for your child.
With the alternate application of different forms of one and the sameThe same medicine (suppositories, syrups, chewable tablets) it is necessary to summarize all the doses received by the child in order to avoid an overdose. Repeated use of the drug is possible not earlier than 4-5 hours after the first intake and only in case of a rise in temperature to high levels.
The effectiveness of a febrifuge is individual and depends on the specific child.
What not to do if the child has fever
- Do not make the baby lie. A really sick child will be in his own bed. If your baby wants to get out of it, you can completely allow him to do something quiet. Try to avoid excessive activity: this can lead to an increase in temperature.
- Do not put the child in an enema unless the doctor specifically prescribed it.
- Do not wear or cover your child too much.
- Do not cover the child with a wet towel or a wet sheet: this can prevent the heat from being released through the skin.
When is it necessary to call the doctor again to the baby?
- Measured, the temperature in the armpit is 39.0-39.5 degrees C, the rectal temperature has exceeded 40.0 degrees Celsius.
- The baby had convulsions for the first time (the body is tense, eyes roll, limbs twitch).
- The child inconsolably cries, screams from pain when touching or moving, moans, does not respond to external stimuli, or his body softens.
- The baby had purple spots on his skin.
- The child can hardly breathe even after you have cleared his nasal passages.
- The baby's neck seems tense, and he does not let him chin his chin to his chest.
- The heat starts following the stay at the outsideSource of heat: for example, in the sun on a hot day or in the car in hot weather. Possible heat stroke, which requires immediate medical attention.
- A sudden rise in temperature occurred in a child with slightly elevated temperature, but too warmly dressed or wrapped in blankets. It should be treated like a heat stroke.
- The doctor told you to immediately report if the child starts fever.
- It seems to you that the child has something serious, although you are at a loss to say why they decided so.
- The child has worsened chronic diseases (heart disease, kidney disease, neurological disease, etc.).
- The child is dehydrated, as can be seen from such signs as: a rare urination, a dark yellow color of urine, a small amount of saliva, tears, sunken eyes.
- The behavior of the child seems atypical: it is unusually capricious, apathetic or overly sleepy, can not fall asleep, is sensitive to light, cries more than usual, refuses to eat, pulls itself by the ears.
- At the child within several days keptA low temperature, and then suddenly rose sharply, or a child with a cold, which arose a few days ago, suddenly had a fever. This heat may indicate a secondary infection, for example, otitis media or strep throat.
- The fever does not decrease with taking medication.
- The temperature of 37.0-38.0 degrees C persists for a long time (more than a week).
- The raised temperature keeps more than days without any other signs of illness.
In all these cases it is necessary to contact the doctor even in the middle of the night or go to the emergency room.