The first word of the child
First three months
Immediately after birth, the baby lacks the skillCommunicate and desire for communication. However, he gradually gets used to hearing during the feeding and wakefulness of the calm, affectionate voice of the mother. In this, at first glance, unilateral communication, the magical power of emotional mother-child contact already exists.
By the end of the first month of life, the baby beginsBriefly delay the look on her mother's face. In 1-2 months he responds with a smile to talk with him and watches the moving toy, listens to her sound or to the voice of an adult.
In 1-1,5 months the child actively "demonstrates" andYour voice. If his very first sounds were abrupt, guttural (something like "kh", "gy"), now they are replaced by lingering and melodious: "ah-ah," "oh-oh-oh." These vocal reactions are called walking.
In 2-3 months, a small man appears andSigns of need for communication: during contacts with an adult, he animatedly moves his hands and feet, smiles, produces various sounds. Such a common motor activity and vocal reactions are called a "revitalization complex." His presence is a good sign: with the development of the child, everything is in order!
Three to six months
The child almost every day makes his family happy with newAchievements: laughs loudly at communication, often smiles, turns his head towards the source of sound and finds it with his eyes, recognizes his mother. And yet, for a long time he sang: "al-le-e-ly-ay-ay" ... These vocal exercises are called a pipe.
At 4 months babble appears: The kid moves from the vocalization of the vowels to the pronunciation of syllables consisting of sonorous and deaf consonant sounds. At first it is really only separate syllables: "ba", "ma", but then they are repeated many times: "ma-ma", "ma-ma-ma", "ba-ba", "ba-ba-ba".
Lepet is not only a manifestation of goodThe mood of the child (he is safe, full, he is dry and warm), it is also the training of the vocal, respiratory and articulatory apparatus. Therefore babble should be maintained and developed, teaching the child to imitate different sounds and sound combinations. "Lesson of babbling" is best spent an hour after the baby woke up.
At 5 months the child recognizes the voice of a loved one, discerns a tender and strict intonation, the face of a familiar and unfamiliar adult.
By the age of 6 months, the baby begins to react to hisname. In addition to sounds in communication, he includes a smile, expressive intonations - joyful or plaintive, may be angry. Thus, the kid actively "talks" and himself asks for "interlocutors".
Six to nine months
The child's world is expanding significantly: Enriched by its opportunities for cognition and relationships with loved ones, independent movements and actions become more complicated. Now an adult can tell a kid about many interesting things. However, only in the language of emotions it is impossible to do this, the development of a new form of communication-speech is required. Speech communication is not only the pronouncing of syllables, words, first phrases by the child, but also understanding of the speech addressed to him.
Talking with a baby, an adult needsClearly call the objects and draw his attention: "Here's a bunny," "Here's a cup," "Take a spoon, we'll eat," etc. A new word should be distinguished with a voice, a pause and repeat the same situation several times.
At about 7 months old, the child, having heard a familiarWord: "Where is the bunny?", "Where is the cup?" - begins to look for the object with his eyes. By the age of 8 months, at the request of an adult, he performs the learned activities, for example: "give a pen", "ladushki", "goodbye", etc. At 9 months he knows his name well and turns to call.
In 8,5-9,5 months the baby not only repeats forOlder acquaintances and some unfamiliar syllables, but also tries to imitate their intonations (modulated babbling). He can persistently and repeatedly repeat the same sound, the syllable.
From nine months to a year
This period is a real school of verbal communication. From 9-10 months the baby can repeat for the adult all new syllables. By the age of 10 months, he learns, at the request of an adult, to find and give him familiar objects, he plays with pleasure in "Soroka-Beloboku", "Ladushki".
Syllables included in the babble of a child, by 10-11 monthsBecome part of the words: "ma-ma-ma" - "mom", "ba-ba-ba" - "baba", "yes-yes-yes" - give. By the end of the first year of life, the baby repeats for an adult and himself pronounces 5-10 words.
These words are very simple yet, but they already meanCertain concepts: mom, dad, baba, ks-ks, am-am, etc. It is important that such simplified words adults be accompanied by the correct verbal designation. For example, showing the dog, you have to say: "Dog, av-av" or "Machine, bi-bi."
That between the word and the object formedMore clear links, you need to accompany the actions performed by speech. For example, to show the baby during dressing, washing, feeding the appropriate items and actions. You can try to direct his activity with the help of a speech: ask to bring or take a toy to the place. It is also very important that the child by the end of the first year of life also formed an adequate response to the word "impossible": you can not take a knife, touch hot, etc.
The way of development of children's speech is complicated. But your help and faith in the success of the baby will certainly help him to say the desired for you and such an important word - "Mom!" By the end of the first year of life.
OLGA STEPANOVA, speech therapist, Cand. Ped. Of sciences